Chapters 4 to 7 form a whole with the emphasis on implementing action research. Your insider action research project may draw you into any number of areas or disciplines in any organizational sectors. You are likely to have your own readings from courses that you have done in the past, such as in undergraduate or masters programmes. So you may draw on readings from a wide variety of fields: management, organisation behaviour, teamworking, organisation development, human resource management, strategy, operations, school and hospital management and so on as they emerge as relevant for you as you engage in your own organisation.
Chapter 4 focuses on how might you might construct and select an action research project? When you construct an issue you are naming it, and by naming it you are focusing on how you might set up its analysis and set the criteria for evaluation. Constructing is a heuristic process, by which we mean that the definition of an issue already includes elements of the solution. You may reconstruct it later whereby you question an existing construction of the issue and possibly discard it in favour of a different one. Then, new frames of reference need to be created to reconstruct the issues in such a way that supports your endeavour. Exercises 4.1 and 4.2 are both clear and practical. Exercise 4.2 may be critical when you have to submit a thesis proposal to your supervisor or department committee.