Chapter 4: Perception and Categorization
1. Which phenomenon do Brislin’s categories of verbal abuse, physical avoidance, discrimination, physical attack, and massacre relate to?
2. Successful information processing depends on the merging of external and internal information. Which of the following is an example of internal information?
- past experience
3. A British tourist first boarding an MTR (subway) in Hong Kong and hearing a local person chatting loudly on a mobile phone might consider the entire population in Hong Kong as inconsiderate of others’ interests. This is an illustration of the relationship between ______.
- beliefs and perception
- worldview and interpretation
- culture and categorization
- ethnocentrism and cultural relativism
4. Which of the following statements is true about the attribution theory?
- Attribution can be internal or external.
- Attribution is not driven by emotional factors.
- People commonly attribute own success to external factors.
- External attribution is related to attitudes or personality.
5. Implicit personality theory suggests that we organise our individual perceptions into clusters. Which tendency best represents the halo effect?
- If someone has one good trait, they are unlikely to have other good traits.
- If someone has one good trait, they are likely to have other good traits.
- If someone has one good trait, they will definitely have other good traits.
- If someone has one good trait, they will definitely not have other good traits.
6. Which of the following statements is true about categorization?
- Categorization increases the level of uncertainty.
- Categorization is a mental economy strategy.
- Categorization prevents us from making attributions about others’ behaviour.
- Categorization blurs the boundaries between ingroups and outgroups.
7. Which stage of selection refers to remembering relevant information so that it may be used in later interpretation?
- selective exposure
- selective attention
- selective retention
- selective closure
8. Listening more and talking less is viewed as showing respect in Japanese culture, but not to speak up can be viewed as lack of confidence in Australia. Which of the following statements best describes what this example illustrates?
- the influence of culture on interpretation
- the influence of culture on selection
- the influence of culture on familiarity
- the influence of culture on retention
9. Which of the following statements is true about stereotypes?
- Stereotypes reflect actual characteristics of certain groups.
- Stereotypes can be positive.
- Stereotypes are not over-generalizations.
- Stereotypes are based on true associations between two variables.
10. Which of the following statements best describes prejudice?
- Prejudice is a negative attitude toward individuals.
- Prejudice can be both positive and negative.
- Prejudice is based on biological characteristics of people only.
- Prejudice is always based on the objective reality.