Chapter 5: Value Orientations and Behaviour
1. When people from different cultures come together to communicate, their messages are guided by and reflect their fundamental values. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding values?
- Values are concepts that have ultimate and long-term significance.
- Values trigger positive or negative judgment of social behaviours.
- Values reflect the relationship between human and language.
- Values tell us what is right or what is wrong.
2. The outlook that a culture has concerning the nature of the universe, the nature of humankind, the relationship between humanity and the universe, and other philosophical issues defining humans’ place in the cosmos is referred to as ______.
3. Confucian work dynamism, a dimension of culture identified by Hofstede and Bond, is also known as long-term versus short-term orientation. Which of the following does short term orientation encourage?
- thrift and savings
- keeping up with social pressure
- indirect communication style
4. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are related to each other. A culture that has greater degree of power distance is also likely to be ______.
- collectivist and short-term oriented
- individualist and feminine
- individualist and long-term oriented
- collectivist and of high uncertainty avoidance
5. Which of the following is more likely to be described as a masculine culture?
- Men and women have similar roles.
- Men and women have distinct, separate roles.
- Men and women have arbitrarily assigned social roles.
- Men and women have overlapping roles.
6. French philosopher Michel Foucault proposed the theory of power. Which of the following is NOT an assumption of this theory?
- Social hierarchy are always present in communication interactions.
- Power is fixed, held by one person and used against another.
- Those who are subjects of power often find ways to resist power.
- Institutional bodies embody and sustain power relations.
7. Which of the following is one of Schwartz’s cultural value types?
8. Which of the following statements best describes a polychromic time orientation?
- Time is cyclical; one task is performed during each time segment.
- Time is linear; one task is performed during each time segment.
- Time is cyclical; multiple tasks can be performed simultaneously.
- Time is linear; multiple tasks can be performed simultaneously.
9. Which of the following statements is truce about individualistic cultures?
- People are encouraged to take responsibility as individuals.
- Marriage is considered as family alliances.
- Individuals subordinate personal needs to their ingroup.
- People are more caring for each other.
10. Which of the following concepts is NOT one of the six spheres in Condon and Yousef’s value orientation model?
- the supernatural
- the collectivity
- the self