Chapter 6: Terror From Below: Terrorism by Dissidents

Brian Blankenship investigates the theory that terrorist groups intentionally try to provoke states to use repression that alienates the population, and addresses the question of what types of states are likely to respond with repressive measures. Brock Blomberg and colleagues propose an “economic model” of terrorism, that is, a rational-actor model that aims to explain the benefit-cost motivation behind dissidents turning to terrorist action. Enders and Su present a discussion of how terrorist networks inevitably restructure themselves in response to proactive counterterrorist policies. Margaret Gonzalez-Perez analyzes the roles of women within internationalist and domestic guerrilla organizations. An interesting comparison of Colombia’s FARC and paramilitaries is presented by Francisco Gutierrez-Sanin. In a similar vein to Blomberg and colleagues, Lawrance Kuznar and James Lutz attempt to explain why individuals choose to join a terrorist group, using the economic-psychological theories of risk sensitivity and prospect theory. Mundy examines the politics of naming civil wars and the definitions of civil war. Raleigh discusses the proliferation of dissident paramilitaries in Africa. Kevin Siqueira discusses strategic interactions between governments and terrorist groups as they compete for public support. The article by Eli Somer, et. al., reports qualitative research on the effect of stress on Israeli hospital workers who treat civilian casualties. Spencer and Croucher present a study which tests “spiral of silence” theory as it pertains to ETA in Spain and France. Anna Lisa Tota presents a cultural discussion of commemorative rituals, using three train bombings as case studies. West and Orr evaluate the effects of perception and emotion during incidents of urban terrorism.

Journal Article 6.1: Blankenship, Brian. “When Do States Take the Bait? State Capacity and the Provocation Logic of Terrorism.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 62:2 (2018).

Journal Article 6.2: Brock Blomberg, S., Gregory D. Hess, and Akila Weerapana. “An Economic Model of Terrorism.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 21:1 (2004): 17-28.

Journal Article 6.3: Enders, Walter and Xuejuan Su. “Rational Terrorists and Optimal Network Structure.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 51:1 (February 2007).

Journal Article 6.4: Gonzalez-Perez, Margaret. “Guerrilleras in Latin America: Domestic and International Roles.” Journal of Peace Research 43:3 (2006).

Journal Article 6.5: Gutierrez-Sanin, Francisco. “Telling the Difference: Guerrillas and Paramilitaries in the Colombian War.” Politics Society 36 (March 2008).

Journal Article 6.6: Kuznar, Lawrence A., and James M. Lutz. “Risk Sensitivity and Terrorism.” Political Studies 55:2 (2007): 341-361.

Journal Article 6.7: Mundy, Jacob. “Deconstructing Civil Wars: Beyond the New Wars Debate.” Security Dialogue 42 (June 2011).

Journal Article 6.8: Raleigh, Clionadh. “Pragmatic and Promiscuous: Explaining the Rise of Competitive Militias across Africa.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 58:5 (2014).

Journal Article 6.9: Siqueira, Kevin. “Terrorists Versus the Government: Strategic Interaction, Support, and Sponsorship.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 50:6 (December 2006).

Journal Article 6.10: Somer, Eli, Eli Buchbinder, Maya Peled-Avram, and Yael Ben-Yizhack. “The Stress and Coping of Israeli Emergency Room Social Workers Following Terrorist Attacks.” Qualitative Health Research 14:8 (October 2004).

Journal Article 6.11: Spencer, Anthony T. and Stephen M. Croucher. “Basque Nationalism and the Spiral of Silence: An Analysis of Public Perceptions of ETA in Spain and France.” International Communications Gazette 70 (April 2008).

Journal Article 6.12: Tota, Anna Lisa. “Terrorism and Collective Memories: Comparing Bologna, Naples and Madrid 11 March.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 46:1-2 (2005).

Journal Article 6.13: West, Darrell M. and Marion Orr. “Managing Citizen Fears: Public Attitudes Toward Urban Terrorism.” Urban Affairs Review 41:1 (September 2005).