Chapter 1: The Social Media Environment

  1. Paul Lee and Cornelia Calugar-Pop, “Global Mobile Consumer Survey 2016,” Deloitte, www2. deloitte.com/global/en/pages/technology-media-and-telecommunications/articles/global-mobile-consumer-survey.html# (accessed February 11, 2017).
  2. Marc Prensky, “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants,” On the Horizon, 9:5 (October 2001), 1–6.
  3. WeAreSocial, 2017 Digital Yearbook, http://wearesocial.com/uk/blog/2017/02/2017-digital-year book (accessed February 11, 2017).
  4. Ibid.
  5. There are several definitions of social media proposed by experts in the field. In preparing this definition, we’ve aggregated the most commonly referenced characteristics of social media and also sought to align the definition with those of traditional media.
  6. Facebook Statistics, http://newsroom.fb.com/company-info (accessed July 20, 2017).
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  10. Fuchs, Christian, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, Matthias Schafranek, Celina Raffl, Marisol Sandoval and Robert Bichler, “Theoretical Foundations of the Web: Cognition, Communication, and Co-operation. Towards an Understanding of Web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0,” Future Internet, 2:1 (2010), 41–59; Celina Raffl, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, Christian Fuchs, and Matthias Schafranek, “The Web as Techno-Social System: The Emergence of Web 3.0,” http://fuchs.uti.at/wp-content/uploads/web3.pdf (accessed June 2, 2017).
  11. Tim O’Reilly, “What Is Web 2.0?” O’Reilly Media, September 30, 2005, http://oreilly.com/web2/ archive/what-is-web-20.html (accessed December 31, 2010).
  12. Nigel Shadbolt, Wendy Hall, and Tim Berners-Lee, “The Semantic Web Revisited,” IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21:3 (2006), 96–101.
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  15. Cardon, Dominique, What Are Algorithms Dreaming Of? (Paris: Seuil, 2015).
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  17. Pticek, Podobnik, and Jezic, “Beyond the Internet of Things: The Social Networking of Machines.”
  18. Blake Morgan, “Absolut Enters the Internet of Things,” Forbes, February 16, 2016, www.forbes. com/sites/blakemorgan/2016/02/16/absolut-enters-the-internet-of-things/#6f2695a21652 (accessed June 2, 2017).
  19. Fuchs et al., “Theoretical Foundations of the Web.”
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  22. “What Is Content Marketing?” Content Marketing Institute, http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/ (accessed June 2, 2017).
  23. Nick Couldry and Jose van Dijck, “Researching Social Media as if the Social Mattered,” Social Media and Society, 2:1 (2015), http://journals.sagepub.com/stoken/rbtfl/ztrGHb5b2R6Rg3dYE53V/pdf/10.117... (accessed June 2, 2017).
  24. Mark Ralphs, “Built In or Bolt On: Why Social Currency Is Essential to Social Media Marketing,” Journal of Direct, Data, and Digital Marketing Practice, 12:3 (2011), 211–15.
  25. Tracy Tuten, “Social Media Marketing Glossary,” http://tracytuten.com/social-media-marketing-glossary (accessed March 2, 2017).
  26. Ralphs, “Built In or Bolt On: Why Social Currency Is Essential to Social Media Marketing.”
  27. American Marketing Association, “Definition of Marketing,” www.marketingpower.com/ aboutama/pages/definitionofmarketing.aspx (accessed December 31, 2010).
  28. Park Sung-Min, “New Business Applications for Social Networking,” SERI Quarterly, January 2012, 121–6.
  29. David Armano, “How Social Digital Is Your Company?”, Harvard Business Review October 19, 2011, https://hbr.org/2011/10/how-social-digital-is-your-com (accessed March 3, 2017).
  30. Ibid.
  31. Yogesh Joshi, Liye Ma, William Rand, and Louiqa Rashid, “How Social Media Drives Brand Engagement and Sales,” MSI Insights, Marketing Science Institute, December 20, 2013, www.msi. org/articles/how-social-media-drives-brand-engagement-and-sales/?utm_source=20141&utm_ medium=Email&utm_campaign= Insights (accessed February 2, 2014).
  32. Christopher Heine, “AmEx’s Social Data Shows That Nostalgia Is Just Swell,” AdWeek October 11, 2013, www.adweek.com/digital/amexs-social-data-shows-nostalgia-just-swell-153053 (accessed June 3, 2017).
  33. Beyond The Arc, “Can Social Media Become a Platform for Social Commerce? American Express Case Study: Applying Social Media Analytics to Evaluate Link, Like, Love,” Case Study, http://beyond thearc.com/wp-content/media/cases/BTA-CaseStudy-Amex-Jan2012.pdf (accessed June 3, 2017). [CHAPTER 1 MINI-CASE STUDY – AMERICAN EXPRESS]
  34. Mikolaj Jan Piskorski, A Social Strategy: How We Profit from Social Media (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014).
  35. Khari Johnson, “American Express Has Launched its Facebook Messenger Bot,” Venture Beat, September 9, 2016, https://venturebeat.com/2016/09/09/american-express-has-launched-its-face book-messenger-bot (accessed June 3, 2017). [CHAPTER 1 MINI-CASE STUDY – AMERICAN EXPRESS]
  36. Heine, “AmEx’s Social Data Shows That Nostalgia Is Just Swell.”
  37. Morgan Johnstonbough, “Positive Responses Follow American Express’s Entrance into Customers’ Everyday Lives Online and Offline,” Crimson Hexagon, www.crimsonhexagon.com/blog/how-credit-card-companies-can-drive-consumer... (accessed June 3, 2017). [CHAPTER 1 MINI-CASE STUDY – AMERICAN EXPRESS]
  38. Beyond The Arc, “Can Social Media Become a Platform for Social Commerce?”
  39. Michael Fauscette, “What Is ‘Social’ CRM Anyway?” January 26, 2009, www.mfauscette.com/software_ technology_partn/2009/01/what-is-social-crm-anyway.html (accessed September 8, 2010).
  40. Josh Bernoff, Empowered (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2010).
  41. Maria Ogneva, “Why Your Company Needs to Embrace Social CRM,” Mashable, May 21, 2010, http://mashable.com/2010/05/21/social-crm (accessed September 7, 2010). 
  42. Ibid.
  43. Eric Melin, “Arby’s Biggest Social Win Ever Comes From Listening,” Social Media Today, January 31, 2014, www.socialmediatoday.com/eric-melin/2130416/arby-s-biggest-social-win-ev... (accessed February 3, 2014).
  44. Lee Raine and Janna Anderson, “Code-Dependent: Pros and Cons of the Algorithm Age,” Pew Research Center, February 8, 2017, www.pewinternet.org/2017/02/08/code-dependent-pros-and-cons-of-the-algor... (accessed June 2, 2017). [CHAPTER 1 – CRITICAL REFLECTION: HOW ALGORITHMS INFLUENCE REALITY]
  45. Cited in ibid.
  46. Eli Pariser, “Beware Online ‘Filter Bubbles,’” Ted, March 2011, www.ted.com/talks/eli_pariser_ beware_online_filter_bubbles?language=en (accessed June 2, 2017). [CHAPTER 1 – CRITICAL REFLECTION: HOW ALGORITHMS INFLUENCE REALITY]