Chapter 3: Network Structure and Group Influences in Social Media

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  6. Ibid.
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  10. Ibid.
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  21. Sheridan, “Further Musings on the Psychophysics of Presence.”
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  27. Ibid.
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  31. Fred Stutzman, “Activating Latent Ties,” May 2007, activating-latent-ties.html (accessed December 31, 2010).
  32. Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe, “The Benefits of Facebook ‘Friends.’”
  33. Matteo Fusco, “That Time Casey Neistat Saved a Human Life Thanks to his Masterful Communication,” Medium, September 30, 2016, (accessed July 3, 2017); Marlan’s GoFundMe campaign is closed but you can read more about his sister and see the final campaign results at (accessed July 3, 2017).
  34. Ed Keller and Jon Berry, The Influentials (New York, Simon & Schuster, 2003).
  35. Ibid.
  36. J.R.P. French and B. Raven, “The Bases of Social Power,” in D. Cartwright and A. Zander (eds), Group Dynamics (New York: Harper & Row, 1959).
  37. Shahid Ali Chaudhry and Waseem Irshad, “Opinion Leadership and Its Role in Buyer Decision Making,” Academy of Contemporary Research Journal, 2:1 (2013), 16–23; Raghuram Iyengar, Christophe Van den Bulte, John Eichert, Bruce West, and Thomas W. Valente, “How Social Networks and Opinion Leaders Affect the Adoption of New Products,” New Theories, 3:1 (2011), 17–25.
  38. Marwick, and D. Boyd, “To See and Be Seen: Celebrity Practice on Twitter,” Convergence, 17:2 (2011), 139–58.
  39. Susie Khamis, Lawrence Ang, and Raymond Welling, “Self-Branding, ‘Micro-Celebrity’ and the Rise of Social Media Influencers,” Celebrity Studies (2016), 1–18.
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  43. Ibid.
  44. Ibid.
  45. “Toddler Playdate with Gerber Lil’ Beanies,” Mommy Hates Cooking, www.mommyhatescooking. com/toddler-playdate-gerber-lil-beanies (accessed July 3, 2017); “Toddler Snacking with Gerber Lil’ Beanies,” Mom Without Labels, September 25, 2016, (accessed July 3, 2017); “Fuel Playtime All Summer with Gerber Lil’ Beanies!” Not Quite Susie Homemaker, June 24, 2016, (accessed July 3, 2017).
  46. Linqia, The Value of Influencer Content 2017.
  47. Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communication (New York: The Free Press, 1955).
  48. Douglas R. Pruden and Terry G. Vavra, “Controlling the Grapevine,” MM (July–August 2004): 23–30.
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  53. Ibid.
  54. Chip Walker, “Word-of-Mouth,” American Demographics (July 1995), 38–44; Albert M. Muñiz, Jr., Thomas O’Guinn, and Gary Alan Fine, “Rumor in Brand Community,” in Donald A. Hantula (ed.), Advances in Theory and Methodology in Social and Organizational Psychology: A Tribute to Ralph Rosnow (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2005).
  55. Kelly Hewett, William Rand, Roland T. Rust, and Harald J. van Heerde, “Brand Buzz in the Echoverse,” Journal of Marketing, 80:3 (2016), 1–24.
  56. David Dubois, Andrea Bonezzi, and Matteo De Angelis, “Sharing with Friends Versus Strangers: How Interpersonal Closeness Influences Word-of-Mouth Valence,” Journal of Marketing Research, 52:5 (2016), 712–27.
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  58. Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 2000).
  59. Ibid.
  60. “The History of RickRolling: Infographic,” Huffington Post, June 1, 2010, www.huffingtonpost. com/2010/06/01/the-history-of-rickrollin_n_596064.html (accessed December 31, 2010).
  61. Mark Patinkin, “Mass. Cyberbullying Verdict Sends Right Message,” Providence Journal, June 17, 2017, (accessed July 3, 2017).
  62. Ditch The Label, “Cyberbullying and Hate Speech,” Brandwatch, 2016, dtl-cyberbullying-viz-2016 (accessed July 3, 2017).
  63. K. Eichorn, “Cyberbullying Triples According to New McAfee ‘2014 Teens and the Screen Study,’” McAfee, June 3, 2014, (accessed July 3, 2017).
  64. Valerie A. Earnshaw, Marc N. Elliott, Sari L. Reisner, Sylvie Mrug, Michael Windle, Susan Tortolero Emery, Melissa F. Peskin, and Mark A. Schuster, “Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use: A Longitudinal Analysis,” Pediatrics, May 2017, http://pediatrics.aappublications. org/content/early/2017/05/04/peds.2016-3426 (accessed July 3, 2017).
  65. Ibid.
  66. Gary Namie, 2017 WBI U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey, Workplace Bullying Institute, (accessed July 3, 2017).
  67. Kaitlin Reilly, “Lady Gaga Explains Why Cyberbullying Is Such a Problem,” Refinery29, June 29, 2017, (accessed July 3, 2017).
  68. Ditch The Label, “Cyberbullying and Hate Speech.”
  69. Nicholas Brody and Anita L. Vangelisti, “Cyberbullying: Topics, Strategies, and Sex Differences,” Computers in Human Behavior, 75 (2017), 739–48.
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