Chapter 3: Network Structure and Group Influences in Social Media

  1. Barry Wellman, “Physical Place and Cyberplace: The Rise of Personalized Networking,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24:2 (2001), 227–52.
  2. Nicole Ellison and Danah Boyd, “Sociality through Social Network Sites,” in William H. Dutton (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 151–72.
  3. Alexandra Marin and Barry Wellman, “Social Network Analysis: An Introduction,” in John Scott and Peter J. Carrington (eds), The Sage Handbook of Social Network Analysis (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 11–25.
  4. C. Haythornthwaite, “Social Networks and Internet Connectivity Effects,” Information, Communication & Society, 8 (2005), 125–47; Nathan Miczo, Theresa Mariani, and Crystal Donahue, “The Strength of Strong Ties: Media Multiplexity, Communication Motives, and the Maintenance of Geographically Close Friendships,” Communication Reports, 24:1 (2011), 12–24.
  5. Fiona MacDonald, “Are We Really All Connected by Just Six Degrees of Separation? Here’s What Science Has to Say,” 27 August 2015, www.sciencealert.com/are-we-all-really-connected-by-just-six-degrees-of-... (accessed June 12, 2017).
  6. Ibid.
  7. T.B. Sheridan, “Further Musings on the Psychophysics of Presence,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5 (1994), 241–6.
  8. Matthew Lombard and Theresa Ditton, “At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence,” Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 3:2 (1997), http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol3/ issue2/lombard.html (accessed December 31, 2010).
  9. K. Knorr-Cetina, “Sociality with Objects: Social Relations in Postsocial Knowledge Societies,” Theory, Culture & Society, 14:4 (1997), 1–30.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Michael Morris, Ying-yi Hong, Chi-yue Chiu, and Zhi Liu, “Normology: Integrating Insights about Social Norms to Understand Cultural Dynamics,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 129 (2015), 1–13.
  12. Leonie Rösner and Nicole C. Krämer, “Verbal Venting in the Social Web: Effects of Anonymity and Group Norms on Aggressive Language Use in Online Comments,” Social Media and Society, 2:3 (2016), http://journals.sagepub.com/stoken/rbtfl/qQDiFf4st8yRSZtXESYN/pdf/10.117... (accessed July 3, 2017).
  13. Luis Gerardo Mojica, “Modeling Trolling in Social Media Conversations,” (2016) arXiv:1612.05310 [cs.CL].
  14. Adrian Chen, “Unmasking Reddit’s Violentacrez, the Biggest Troll on the Web,” The Daily Dot, December 11 2015, www.dailydot.com/news/unmasking-violentacrez-biggest-reddit-troll (accessed July 3, 2017).
  15. “When to Ban Social Media Trolls and Prevent Harassment,” Adweek, January 27, 2017, www. adweek.com/digital/peter-friedman-liveworld-guest-post-trolls (accessed July 3, 2017).
  16. K. Rost, L. Stahel, and B.S. Frey, “Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media,” PLoS ONE, 11:6 (2016).
  17. David Brooks, “The Shame Culture,” New York Times, March 2, 2016, www.nytimes. com/2016/03/15/opinion/the-shame-culture.html?_r=0 (accessed July 3, 2017).
  18. Rösner and Krämer, “Verbal Venting in the Social Web.”
  19. Douglas Holt, “Branding in the Age of Social Media,” Harvard Business Review, March 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/03/branding-in-the-age-of-social-media (accessed July 3, 2017).
  20. R.P. Bagozzi, and U.M. Dholakia, “Intentional Social Action in Virtual Communities,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, 16:2 (2002), 2–21.
  21. Sheridan, “Further Musings on the Psychophysics of Presence.”
  22. J.R. Brodie, L. Hollebeek, B. Juric, and A. Ilic, “Consumer Engagement: Conceptual Domain, Fundamental Propositions and Implications for Research”, Journal of Service Research, 14:3 (2011), 252–71.
  23. Geoffrey G. Parker, Marshall W. Van Alstyne, and Sangeet Paul Choudary, Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy—and How to Make Them Work for You (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2016).
  24. James S. Coleman, “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital,” The American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988), 95–120.
  25. Nicole Ellison, Charles Steinfield, and Cliff Lampe, “The Benefits of Facebook ‘Friends:’ Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12 (2007), 1143–68.
  26. John Cannarella and Joshua Spechler, “Epidemiological Modeling of Online Social Network Dynamics,” January 2014, working paper, Princeton University, http://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.4208. pdf (accessed January 27, 2014).
  27. Ibid.
  28. Josh Constine, “Facebook Hilariously Debunks Princeton Study Saying It Will Lose 80% Of Users,” TechCrunch, January 23, 2014, https://techcrunch.com/2014/01/23/facebook-losing-users-princeton-losing... (accessed July 3, 2017).
  29. Lee Rainie, John Horrigan, Barry Wellman, and Jeffrey Boase, “The Strength of Internet Ties,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, January 25, 2005, www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2006/ The-Strength-of-Internet-Ties.aspx (accessed June 23, 2010).
  30. McKinsey & Company, “The Strength of Weak Ties,” Report, www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_ tech_telecoms_internet/the_strength_of_weak_signals?cid=other-eml-nsl-mip-mck-oth-1403 (accessed February 12, 2014).
  31. Fred Stutzman, “Activating Latent Ties,” May 2007, http://chimprawk.blogspot.com/2007/05/ activating-latent-ties.html (accessed December 31, 2010).
  32. Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe, “The Benefits of Facebook ‘Friends.’”
  33. Matteo Fusco, “That Time Casey Neistat Saved a Human Life Thanks to his Masterful Communication,” Medium, September 30, 2016, https://medium.com/@matteofusco/that-time-casey-neistat-saved-a-human-li... (accessed July 3, 2017); Marlan’s GoFundMe campaign is closed but you can read more about his sister and see the final campaign results at www.gofundme.com/2rckwss (accessed July 3, 2017).
  34. Ed Keller and Jon Berry, The Influentials (New York, Simon & Schuster, 2003).
  35. Ibid.
  36. J.R.P. French and B. Raven, “The Bases of Social Power,” in D. Cartwright and A. Zander (eds), Group Dynamics (New York: Harper & Row, 1959).
  37. Shahid Ali Chaudhry and Waseem Irshad, “Opinion Leadership and Its Role in Buyer Decision Making,” Academy of Contemporary Research Journal, 2:1 (2013), 16–23; Raghuram Iyengar, Christophe Van den Bulte, John Eichert, Bruce West, and Thomas W. Valente, “How Social Networks and Opinion Leaders Affect the Adoption of New Products,” New Theories, 3:1 (2011), 17–25.
  38. Marwick, and D. Boyd, “To See and Be Seen: Celebrity Practice on Twitter,” Convergence, 17:2 (2011), 139–58.
  39. Susie Khamis, Lawrence Ang, and Raymond Welling, “Self-Branding, ‘Micro-Celebrity’ and the Rise of Social Media Influencers,” Celebrity Studies (2016), 1–18.
  40. Edelman Digital, 2017 Trends Report, http://edelmandigital.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/ 2017-Edelman-Digital-Trends-Report.pdf (accessed June 12, 2017).
  41. Heather Saul, “Instafamous: Meet the Social Media Influencers Redefining Celebrity,” The Independent, 27 March 2016, www.independent.co.uk/news/people/instagram-model-natasha-oakley-iskra-l... (accessed July 3, 2017).
  42. Linqia, The Value of Influencer Content 2017, www.linqia.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/ The-Value-of-Influencer-Content-2017_Final_Report.pdf (accessed June 12, 2017).
  43. Ibid.
  44. Ibid.
  45. “Toddler Playdate with Gerber Lil’ Beanies,” Mommy Hates Cooking, www.mommyhatescooking. com/toddler-playdate-gerber-lil-beanies (accessed July 3, 2017); “Toddler Snacking with Gerber Lil’ Beanies,” Mom Without Labels, September 25, 2016, http://momwithoutlabels.com/ (accessed July 3, 2017); “Fuel Playtime All Summer with Gerber Lil’ Beanies!” Not Quite Susie Homemaker, June 24, 2016, www.notquitesusie.com/2016/06/fuel-playtime-summer-gerber-lil-beanies.html (accessed July 3, 2017).
  46. Linqia, The Value of Influencer Content 2017.
  47. Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communication (New York: The Free Press, 1955).
  48. Douglas R. Pruden and Terry G. Vavra, “Controlling the Grapevine,” MM (July–August 2004): 23–30.
  49. BzzAgent, http://about.bzzagent.com/word-of-mouth/index/about-bzzagent (accessed December 31, 2010).
  50. Keller Fay, “Engagement Labs Launches New TotalSocial™ Measurement Solution,” Engage­ mentlabs, August 9, 2016, www.engagementlabs.com/press/engagement-labs-launches-new-totalsocial-me... (accessed July 3, 2017).
  51. Deena Amato-McCoy, “Study: User-Generated Content Influences Most Purchase Decisions,” Chain Store Age, June 19, 2017, www.chainstoreage.com/article/study-user-generated-content-influences-mo... (accessed July 3, 2017).
  52. Ana Babić Rosario, Francesca Sotgiu, Kristine De Valck, and Tammo H.A. Bijmolt, “The Effect of Electronic Word of Mouth on Sales: A Meta-Analytic Review of Platform, Product, and Metric Factors,” Journal of Marketing Research, 53:3 (2016), 297–318.
  53. Ibid.
  54. Chip Walker, “Word-of-Mouth,” American Demographics (July 1995), 38–44; Albert M. Muñiz, Jr., Thomas O’Guinn, and Gary Alan Fine, “Rumor in Brand Community,” in Donald A. Hantula (ed.), Advances in Theory and Methodology in Social and Organizational Psychology: A Tribute to Ralph Rosnow (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2005).
  55. Kelly Hewett, William Rand, Roland T. Rust, and Harald J. van Heerde, “Brand Buzz in the Echoverse,” Journal of Marketing, 80:3 (2016), 1–24.
  56. David Dubois, Andrea Bonezzi, and Matteo De Angelis, “Sharing with Friends Versus Strangers: How Interpersonal Closeness Influences Word-of-Mouth Valence,” Journal of Marketing Research, 52:5 (2016), 712–27.
  57. “Introducing Peer Influence Analysis: 500 Billion Peer Impressions Each Year,” Empowered, April 20, 2010, http://forrester.typepad.com/groundswell/2010/04/introducing-peer-influe.... html (accessed December 31, 2010).
  58. Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 2000).
  59. Ibid.
  60. “The History of RickRolling: Infographic,” Huffington Post, June 1, 2010, www.huffingtonpost. com/2010/06/01/the-history-of-rickrollin_n_596064.html (accessed December 31, 2010).
  61. Mark Patinkin, “Mass. Cyberbullying Verdict Sends Right Message,” Providence Journal, June 17, 2017, www.providencejournal.com/news/20170617/mark-patinkin-mass-cyberbullying... (accessed July 3, 2017).
  62. Ditch The Label, “Cyberbullying and Hate Speech,” Brandwatch, 2016, www.brandwatch.com/ dtl-cyberbullying-viz-2016 (accessed July 3, 2017).
  63. K. Eichorn, “Cyberbullying Triples According to New McAfee ‘2014 Teens and the Screen Study,’” McAfee, June 3, 2014, www.mcafee.com/us/about/news/2014/q2/20140603-01.aspx (accessed July 3, 2017).
  64. Valerie A. Earnshaw, Marc N. Elliott, Sari L. Reisner, Sylvie Mrug, Michael Windle, Susan Tortolero Emery, Melissa F. Peskin, and Mark A. Schuster, “Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use: A Longitudinal Analysis,” Pediatrics, May 2017, http://pediatrics.aappublications. org/content/early/2017/05/04/peds.2016-3426 (accessed July 3, 2017).
  65. Ibid.
  66. Gary Namie, 2017 WBI U.S. Workplace Bullying Survey, Workplace Bullying Institute, www.work placebullying.org/wbiresearch/wbi-2017-survey (accessed July 3, 2017).
  67. Kaitlin Reilly, “Lady Gaga Explains Why Cyberbullying Is Such a Problem,” Refinery29, June 29, 2017, www.refinery29.com/2017/06/161518/lady-gaga-internet-trolls-advice-cyber... (accessed July 3, 2017).
  68. Ditch The Label, “Cyberbullying and Hate Speech.”
  69. Nicholas Brody and Anita L. Vangelisti, “Cyberbullying: Topics, Strategies, and Sex Differences,” Computers in Human Behavior, 75 (2017), 739–48.
  70. Josh Pasek, Eian More, and Daniel Romer, “Realizing the Social Internet? Online Social Networking Meets Offline Civic Engagement,” Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 6:3–4 (2009), 197–215.
  71. Keith Hampton, Lauren Sessions, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell, “Social Networking Sites and Our Lives,” Pew Research Center, June 16, 2011, www.pewinternet.org/2011/06/16/social-net working-sites-and-our-lives (accessed July 3, 2017).