Chapter 9: Social Commerce

  1. Adapted from Paul Marsden, “Simple Definition of Social Commerce (With Word Cloud & Definitive Definition List),” Digital Intelligence Today, November 17, 2009, updated January 2010, http://digitalintelligencetoday.com/social-commerce-definition-word-clou... (accessed June 21, 2017).
  2. Amir Afrasiabi Rad and Morad Benyoucef, “A Model for Understanding Social Commerce,” Journal of Information Systems Applied Research, 4:2 (2011), 63.
  3. Madeline Farber, “Consumers Are Now Doing Most of Their Shopping Online,” Fortune, June 8, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/06/08/online-shopping-increases (access March 02, 2017).
  4. “EMarketer US Retail Commerce StatPack,” eMarketer, 2017, www.emarketer.com/public_media/docs/eMarketer_US_Retail_Ecommerce_StatPa... (accessed March 15, 2017).
  5. Ibid.
  6. “Singapore, Thailand Love Instagram, eCommerce,” PYMNTS.com, December 8, 2016, www.pymnts.com/news/mobile-commerce/2016/singapore-thailand-love-instagr... (accessed June 21, 2017).
  7. Catherine Baethge, Julia Klier, and Mathias Klier, “Social Commerce—State-of-the-Art and Future Research Directions,” Electronic Markets, 26 (2016), 269–90.
  8. J. Shen, “Social Comparison, Social Presence, and Enjoyment in the Acceptance of Social Shopping Websites,” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 13:3 (2012), 198–212; cf. J. Shen and L. Eder, “An Examination of Factors Associated With User Acceptance of Social Shopping Websites,” International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 7:1 (2011), 19–36; J. Shen, L. Eder, and J.D. Procaccino, “Social Comparison and Trust in the Acceptance of Social Shopping Websites,” International Journal of Electronic Business, 8:4 (2010), 360–75.
  9. For a scale to assess these dimensions of the shopping experience, see Barry J. Babin, William R. Darden, and Mitch Griffin, “Work and/or Fun: Measuring Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Value,” Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (March 1994), 644–56.
  10. Velitchka Kaltcheva and Barton Weitz, “When Should a Retailer Create an Exciting Store Environment?” Journal of Marketing, 70 (2005), 107–18.
  11. Mark J. Arnold and Kristy Reynolds, “Hedonic Shopping Motives,” Journal of Retailing, 79:2 (2003), 77–95.
  12. “Social Media Impacts More People’s Shopping Decisions than TV,” BizReport, July 21, 2016, www.bizreport.com/2016/07/social-media-impacts-more-peoples-shopping-dec... (accessed June 21, 2017).
  13. Rachel Eisenberg, “Pinterest and the Power of Future Intent,” MillwardBrown Digital, May 12, 2015, www.millwardbrowndigital.com/pinterest-and-the-power-of-future-intent (accessed June 21, 2017).
  14. Ed Terpening and Aubrey Littleton, “The 2016 State of Social Business,” Altimeter, November 15, 2016, www.altimetergroup.com/pdf/reports/2016-State-of-Social-Business-Altimet... (accessed July 3, 2017).
  15. Jim Lecinski, ZMOT Handbook, Think with Google, 2011, www.thinkwithgoogle.com/marketing resources/micro-moments/2011-winning-zmot-ebook (accessed July 3, 2017).
  16. Yubo Chen, Scott Fay, and Qi Wang, “The Role of Marketing in Social Media: How Online Consumer Reviews Evolve,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, 25:2 (2011), 85–94.
  17. Yuhua (Jake) Liang, Brianna N. DeAngelis, David D. Clare, Sam M. Dorros, and Timothy R. Levine, “Message Characteristics in Online Product Reviews and Consumer Ratings of Helpfulness,” Southern Communication Journal, 70:5 (2014), 468–83.
  18. Graham Charlton, “More Online Product Searches Start on Amazon than Google,” SearchEngineWatch, September 27, 2016, https://searchenginewatch.com/2016/09/27/more-online-product-searches-st... (accessed June 21, 2017).
  19. “5 Social Shopping Trends Shaping the Future of Ecommerce,” Power Reviews and the eTailing Group, 2010, www.e-tailing.com/content/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/social_shopping_web... (accessed July 3, 2017).
  20. “New Research Reveals Best Approach to Harness the Power of Online Influence on Purchase Behavior,” Cone, July 14, 2010, www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/new-research-reveals-best-approach-to-h... (accessed July 29, 2010).
  21. Alan Vantoai, “50 Peer-To-Peer Marketing Statistics That Every Marketer Should Know,” Crew Fire Blog, June 27, 2017, www.crewfire.com/50-peer-to-peer-marketing-statistics (accessed July 4, 2017).
  22. Dirk Singer, “20% of Tweets About Brands,” Social Media Today, September 14, 2009, www.social mediatoday.com/SMC/123878 (accessed July 30, 2010).
  23. Quoted in “Social Commerce Statistics,” Bazaarvoice, www.bazaarvoice.com/resources/stats (accessed July 30, 2010).
  24. Jake Hird, “Online Consumers Trust Real People, Not Companies,” eConsultancy, July 8, 2009, http://econsultancy.com/blog/4175-online-consumers-trust-real-people-not... (accessed July 30, 2010).
  25. Andrew J. Flanagin and Miriam J. Metzger, “Trusting Expert- Versus User-Generated Ratings Online: The Role of Information Volume, Valence, and Consumer Characteristics,” Computers in Human Behavior, 29:4 (2013), 1626–34.
  26. Ana Babić Rosario, Francesca Sotgiu, Kristine De Valck, and Tammo H.A. Bijmolt, “The Effect of Electronic Word of Mouth on Sales: A Meta-Analytic Review of Platform, Product, and Metric Factors,” Journal of Marketing Research, 53:3 (2016), 297–318.
  27. Ibid.
  28. Chen, Fay, and Wang, “The Role of Marketing in Social Media: How Online Consumer Reviews Evolve.”
  29. Ayaz Nanji, “Do Consumers Trust Online Reviews,” MarketingProfs.com, September 5, 2013, www.marketingprofs.com/charts/2013/11563/do-consumers-trust-online-reviews (accessed July 13, 2014).
  30. Global Trust in Advertising, Nielsen, September 2015, www.nielsen.com/content/dam/nielsen global/apac/docs/reports/2015/nielsen-global-trust-in-advertising-report-september-2015.pdf (accessed February 20, 2017).
  31. Khim-Yong Goh, Cheng-Suang Heng, and Zhijie Lin, “Social Media Brand Community and Consumer Behavior: Quantifying the Relative Impact of User- and Marketer-Generated Content,” Information Systems Research, 24:1 (2013), 88–107. 
  32. Eileen Brown, “Study Shows Non-Celebrity Influencers Are 10 Times More Likely to Drive In-Store Purchases,” ZDNet.com, April 27, 2016, www.zdnet.com/article/study-shows-non-celebrity-influencers-are-10-times... (accessed June 21, 2017).
  33. Marcus Miller, “SEO & The Zero Moment of Truth,” Search Engine Land, February 29, 2016, http://searchengineland.com/seo-zero-moment-truth-242692 (accessed June 21, 2017).
  34. “The Social Generations: Millennials Ask, Gen X Buys & Baby Boomers Observe,” The Q1 2017 Sprout Social Index, Sprout Social, http://sproutsocial.com/insights/data/q1-2017 (accessed March 15, 2017).
  35. Sebastian DiGrande, David Knox, Kate Manfred, and John Rose, “Unlocking the Digital-Marketing Potential of Small Businesses,” BCG Perspectives, March 19, 2013, www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/digital_economy_marketing_sales... (accessed July 20, 2014).
  36. Michael Luca, “Reviews, Reputation, and Revenue: The Case of Yelp.com,” Harvard Business School Working Paper Series, 2011, www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=41233 (accessed June 12, 2012).
  37. “The BazaarVoice CGC Index,” Bazaarvoice, www.bazaarvoice.com/cgcindex (accessed July 4, 2017).
  38.  “Online Consumer-Generated Reviews Have Significant Impact on Offline Purchase Behavior,” comScore, November 29, 2007, www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2007/11/Online_Consumer_Rev... (accessed July 30, 2010).
  39. Don Davis, “Customer Reviews Help Cut Product Return Rate at Petco,” Internet Retailer, June 26, 2007, www.internetretailer.com/2007/06/26/customer-reviews-help-cut-product-re... (accessed July 30, 2010).
  40. “Rubbermaid Products with Reviews Show Increased Revenues,” Bazaarvoice Case Study, January 2010, www.bazaarvoice.com/case-studies/Rubbermaid-RR-case-study.html (accessed July 3, 2017).
  41. Eric Anderson and Duncan Simester, “Reviews Without a Purchase: Low Ratings, Loyal Customers, and Deception,” Journal of Marketing Research, 51:3 (2014), 249–69, http://web.mit.edu/simester/Public/Papers/Deceptive_Reviews.pdf (accessed July 20, 2014).
  42. “Brand Transparency on Social Media,” Chartered Institute of Marketing, June 9, 2016, https://exchange.cim.co.uk/infographic/brand-transparency-on-social-media (accessed February 15, 2017).
  43. Nick Statt, “Amazon Is Cracking Down on Biased Customer Reviews,” The Verge, October 3, 2016, www.theverge.com/2016/10/3/13155578/amazon-incentivized-reviews-ban-vine... (accessed June 21, 2017).
  44. “Leading Retail Analyst Shows Retailers Can Gain Market Share Through Consumer-Generated Product Ratings and Reviews,” Business Wire, August 15, 2006.
  45. “Social Commerce Roundup,” eMarketer, July 2014, http://on.emarketer.com/Roundup-07012014-SocialCommerceRoundup.html (accessed July 20, 2014).
  46. Ibid.
  47. Heidi Bleau, “Cybercrime in Social Media Grows 70% in Six Months,” RSA, December 6, 2016, http://blogs.rsa.com/cybercrime-social-media-grows-70-six-months (accessed June 21, 2017).
  48. Social Media Protection: Brand Fraud Report, Proofpoint, 2016, https://go.proofpoint.com/rs/309-RHV-619/images/Social%20Media%20Protect... (accessed June 21, 2017).
  49. Gerd Gigerenzer and Reinhard Selten, Bounded Rationality: The Adaptive Toolbox (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002).
  50. Paul Marsden, “How Social Commerce Works: The Social Psychology of Social Shopping,” Digital Intelligence Today, December 6, 2009, http://digitalintelligencetoday.com/how-social-commerce-works-the-social... (accessed July 4, 2017).
  51. Robert Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (New York: Collins, 1998).
  52. J.H. Huang and Y.F. Chen, “Herding in Online Product Choice,” Psychology & Marketing, 23:5 (2006), 413–28.
  53. Wenjing Duan, Bin Gu, and Andrew Whinston, “Analysis of Herding on the Internet—An Empirical Investigation of Online Software Download,” Proceedings of the Eleventh Americas Conference on Information Systems, Omaha, NE, USA, August 11–14, 2005, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ad37/7e2f5e0b890e86d43b08ab03e4c84a80a8... (accessed June 21, 2017).
  54. For a study that measures individual differences in proclivity to conformity, see William O. Bearden, Richard G. Netemeyer, and Jesse E. Teel, “Measurement of Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (March 1989), 473–81.
  55. John W. Thibaut and Harold H. Kelley, The Social Psychology of Groups (New York: Wiley, 1959); W.W. Waller and R. Hill, The Family: A Dynamic Interpretation (New York: Dryden, 1951).
  56. Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel, “Measurement of Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence”; Lynn R. Kahle, “Observations: Role-Relaxed Consumers: A Trend of the Nineties,” Journal of Advertising Research (March–April 1995), 66–71; Lynn R. Kahle and Aviv Shoham, “Observations: Role-Relaxed Consumers: Empirical Evidence,” Journal of Advertising Research (May–June 1995), 59–62.
  57. “MantraBand Creates Social Proof with Yotpo: Case Study,” Yotpo, www.yotpo.com/case-study/mantraband (accessed June 21, 2017).