SAGE Journal Articles
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Corsaro, N., Brunson, R. K., & McGarrell, E. F. (2013). Problem-oriented policing and open-air drug markets: Examining the Rockford pulling levers deterrence strategy. Crime & Delinquency, 59(7), 1085-1107.
Problem-oriented policing strategies have been regarded as promising approaches for disrupting open-air drug markets in vulnerable communities. Pulling levers deterrence interventions, which are consistent with the problem-oriented framework, have shown potential as an effective mechanism for reducing and preventing youth, gun, and gang violence. This study examines the effect of a strategic, pulling levers intervention that was implemented by law enforcement officials in Rockford, Illinois, to address drug markets in a high crime neighborhood. The initiative builds on a similar effort developed in High Point, North Carolina, and represents an extension of pulling levers that was originally developed in Boston. The impact evaluation uses a mixed method of quantitative hierarchical growth curve models and qualitative interviews with residents. Study findings suggest that the Rockford strategy was associated with a statistically significant and substantive reduction in crime, drug, and nuisance offenses in the target neighborhood. Results from this examination have implications for both research and public policy.
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s self-control theory has been the subject of much debate and empirical testing. Although the theory was developed originally as an explanation for criminal offending, researchers recently have examined whether low self-control may increase the risk of criminal victimization. This study assesses the effects of low self-control on victimization and offending among the incarcerated. We utilize structural equation models to test the impact of low self-control on prison victimization and prison infractions based on a study involving 208 recently paroled inmates from a Midwestern state. The results indicate that risk taking is a significant predictor of prison victimization and temper is a significant predictor of infractions. We conclude that self-control theory is a potential predictor of prison infractions and victimization and that personality traits seen as generally criminogenic in the free world may have particular situational ramifications in prison.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex social problem that has produced a wide variety of explanations. However, few studies have explored what, if any, role victim precipitation plays in IPV. Victim precipitation is generally defined as behavior by the victim that initiates the subsequent behavior of the victimizer; however, studies using this concept have often been accused of subtle and overt victim blaming. Distinguishing victim precipitation from victim blaming, this study explores the utility of victim precipitation in understanding contextual differences in men’s and women’s use of violence in intimate relationships and police use of dual arrest in IPV incidents. Results suggest that victim precipitation plays an important role in understanding incidents of IPV, especially in cases involving dual arrest.
In recent decades, crime has emerged as a prominent policy focus nationally. Accordingly, a large literature on public views about crime has developed, one strand of which highlights the racialization of crime as a factor central to public opinion and policy discourse. Drawing on this work and studies on the effects of interracial contact, the authors seek to advance theory and research on public opinion about crime. To this end, they draw on data from an ABC News and Washington Post poll to test competing hypotheses about the effects of interracial friendship among Whites on concern about local and national crime. The results suggest that interracial contact increases concern about crime among urban Whites. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for theory, research, and policy.
Paoline, E. A., III, Terrill, W., & Ingram, J. R. (2012). Police use of force and officer injuries: Comparing conducted energy devices (CEDs) to hands- and weapons-based tactics. Police Quarterly, 15(2), 115-136.
The widespread adoption of conducted energy devices (CEDs) across American police departments over the last decade has been mired in public controversy. It is generally accepted, from a police perspective, that CEDs are safer for officers who can use the weapon at a greater distance, avoiding much of the harm associated with close physical struggles with citizens. Research has generally supported the notion that aggregate levels of officer injuries are reduced following the implementation of CEDs. Unfortunately, multivariate examinations that, in varying degrees, have attempted to compare CED applications to other forms of force (while controlling for rival causal factors) have yet to produce the same consistent results as the pre- and post-CED adoption studies. The current research adds to recent multivariate inquiries by using data collected as part of a national multiagency use of force project to assess the independent effect of CEDs on officer injuries. Based on a series of multivariate models, our results generally find evidence of increased benefits (i.e., lower probability of officer injury) of CEDs when used by themselves. By contrast, in some instances when CEDs were used in combination with other forms of force, there was an increased probability of officer injury. The implications of these findings for police researchers and practitioners are considered.