Learning Objectives

By the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Define the term ‘macro-social’ and understand its relevance to health psychology
  • Understand and describe the constraints on individual health choices
  • Understand the limitations of the ‘trickle-down’ concept of economic growth which does not reduce social disparities
  • Pinpoint factors affecting health differences across different regions of the world including poverty
  • Describe the significance of Whitehall studies and similar analyses carried out in other countries
  • Show awareness of the role of consumption of tobacco, alcohol, ultra-processed food, drink and other unhealthy commodities is increasing throughout the low- and middle-income countries in driving increases in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases