Chapter 1: An Introduction to Codes and Coding

Category Construction

Fruhauf, C. A., Pevney, B., &  Bundy-Fazioli, K. (2015). The needs and use of programs by service providers working with grandparents raising grandchildren. Journal of Applied Gerontology 34(2), 138–57.

Hing, N., Cherney, L., Gainsbury, S. M., Lubman, D. I., Wood, R. T., & Blaszczynski, A. (2015). Maintaining and losing control during internet gambling: A qualitative study of gamblers’ experiences. New Media & Society 17(7), 1075–95.

Ivetic, V., Kersnik, J., Klemenc-Ketis, Z., Svab, I., Kolsek, M., & Poplas-Susic, T. (2013). Opinions of Slovenian family physicians on medically unexplained symptoms: A qualitative study. Journal of International Medical Research 41(3), 705–15.

Stievano, A., De Marinis, M. G., Russo, M. T., Rocco, G., & Alvaro, R. (2012). Professional dignity in nursing in clinical and community workplaces. Nursing Ethics 19(3), 341–56.

Quantities of Qualities

Ruppar, A. L. (2015). A preliminary study of the literacy experiences of adolescents with severe disabilities. Remedial and Special Education 36(4), 235–45.


Bringer, J. D., Johnston, L. H., & Brackenridge, C. H. (2006). Using computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software to develop a grounded theory project. Field Methods 18(3), 245–66.

La Pelle, N. (2004). Simplifying qualitative data analysis using general purpose software tools. Field Methods 16(1), 85–108.  

Meyer, D. Z., & Avery, L. M. (2009). Excel as a qualitative data analysis tool. Field Methods 21(1), 91–112.

Sun, M., Ryan, C., & Pan, S. (2015). Using Chinese travel blogs to examine perceived destination image: The case of New Zealand. Journal of Travel Research 54(5), 543–55.


DeCuir-Gunby, J. T., Marshall, P. L., & McCulloch, A. W. (2011). Developing and using a codebook for the analysis of interview data: An example from a professional development research project. Field Methods 23(2), 136–55.

McHugh, R. M., Horner, C. G., Colditz, J. B., & Wallace, T. L. (2013). Bridges and barriers: Adolescent perceptions of student-teacher relationships. Urban Education 48(1), 9–43.

Senders, A., Sando, K., Wahbeh, H., Hiller, A. P., & Shinto, L. (2014). Managing psychological stress in the multiple sclerosis medical visit: Patient perspectives and unmet needs. Journal of Health Psychology. doi: 10.1177/1359105314562084.

Intercoder Agreement

Brittian, A. S., Lewin, N., & Norris, S. A. (2013). “You must know where you come from”: South African youths’ perceptions of religion in time of social change. Journal of Adolescent Research 28(6), 642–63.

Fletcher, A. C., & Blair, B. L. (2014). Implications of the family expert role for parental rules regarding adolescent use of social technologies. New Media & Society. doi: 10.1177/1461444814538922.

Hruschka, D. J., Schwartz, D., St. John, D. C., Picone-Decaro, E., Jenkins, R. A., & Carey, J. W. (2004). Reliability in coding open-ended data: Lessons learned from HIV behavioral research. Field Methods 16(3), 307–31.

A Priori Codes

Chapman, M. V., & Stein, G. L. (2014). How do new immigrant Latino parents interpret problem behavior in adolescents? Qualitative Social Work 13(2), 270–87.

Mixed Methods

Campbell, R., Patterson, D., & Bybee, D. (2011). Using mixed methods to evaluate a community intervention for sexual assault survivors: A methodological tale. Violence Against Women 17(3), 376–88.

Kao, T.-S. A., & Salerno, J. (2014). Keeping adolescents busy with extracurricular activities. Journal of School Nursing 30(1), 57–67.

Rasberry, C. N., Morris, E., Lesesne, C. A., Kroupa, E., Topete, P., Carver, L. H., & Robin, L. (2014). Communicating with school nurses about sexual orientation and sexual health: Perspectives of teen young men who have sex with men. Journal of School Nursing. doi: 10.1177/1059840514557160