Chapter 1: What are the Attitudes and How are They Measured?
1. Which of the following could you classify as an attitude object?
- a red Mercedes Benz convertible
- your self-esteem
- all of these
2. How does your text define an attitude?
- being arrogant and condescending to others
- an evaluative judgment about a stimulus object
- one’s inherent values and beliefs
- all of these
3. Why are attitudes important?
- They are the foundation of all psychological constructs.
- They are useful in understanding human thought and behavior.
- They drive 65% of human behaviors.
- They are frequently discussed in the national and international media.
4. What were Louis Thurstone and Rensis Likert’s most notable contributions to the study of attitudes?
- They co-formed the Attitude Researchers Institute.
- They co-founded the Values and Attitudes Journal.
- They developed ways for measuring attitudes, including the Equal Appearing Interval and Likert scale.
- They reported their breakthrough research on prejudicial attitudes based on their experience traveling across the United States of America with a young Chinese couple.
5. The Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) is based on which of the following paradigms in social psychology?
- conformity, power and group dynamics
- authoritarianism and prejudicial attitude dynamics
- social influence
- social cognition
6. Which of the following is NOT an implicit measure of attitude?
- Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Semantic Differential Scale
- IAT (Greenwald, McGhee and Schwartz, 1998)
- evaluative priming (Russell Fazio, 1995)
7. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which attitudes are acquired?
- observational learning
- classical conditioning
- operant reinforcement
- negative inhibition
8. Which of the following is NOT an explicit method of attitude measure?
- Facial electromyography
- Likert (1932) scale
- Equal Appearing Intervals method (Thurstone and Chave, 1929)
- semantic differential scales (Osgood, Suci and Tannebaum, 1957)
9. A good measure of any psychological construct must be ______.
- quantitative and cumulative
- reliable and valid
- flexible and open-ended
- cost-effective and efficient
10. Which is a criticism of direct measures of attitudes?
- impression management
- Sometimes individuals might not be aware of their underlying attitude toward an object.
- Subtle differences in item presentation can influence responses.
- all of these
11. Suppose a researcher claims that hand palm reading can be used as a measure of attitudes. It is unlikely, but if this proves to be a reliable and valid attitude measure, we would discuss this in the next edition of this book as ______.
- a direct measure
- an indirect measure
- a semantic differential
- evaluative priming
12. Which dimensions would typically be part of a semantic differential if this was to be used as an attitude measure?
- favorable/unfavorable; fast/slow; strong/weak
- good/bad; strong/weak; old/young
- good/bad; favorable/unfavorable; positive/negative
- favorable/unfavorable; open/closed; warm/cold