Chapter 1: What are the Attitudes and How are They Measured?

1. Which of the following could you classify as an attitude object?

  1. liberalism
  2. a red Mercedes Benz convertible
  3. your self-esteem
  4. all of these

Answer: D

2. How does your text define an attitude?

  1. being arrogant and condescending to others
  2. an evaluative judgment about a stimulus object
  3. one’s inherent values and beliefs
  4. all of these

Answer: B

3. Why are attitudes important?

  1. They are the foundation of all psychological constructs.
  2. They are useful in understanding human thought and behavior.
  3. They drive 65% of human behaviors.
  4. They are frequently discussed in the national and international media.

Answer: B

4. What were Louis Thurstone and Rensis Likert’s most notable contributions to the study of attitudes?

  1. They co-formed the Attitude Researchers Institute.
  2. They co-founded the Values and Attitudes Journal.
  3. They developed ways for measuring attitudes, including the Equal Appearing Interval and Likert scale.
  4. They reported their breakthrough research on prejudicial attitudes based on their experience traveling across the United States of America with a young Chinese couple.

Answer: C

5. The Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) is based on which of the following paradigms in social psychology?

  1. conformity, power and group dynamics
  2. authoritarianism and prejudicial attitude dynamics
  3. social influence
  4. social cognition

Answer: D

6. Which of the following is NOT an implicit measure of attitude?

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  2. Semantic Differential Scale
  3. IAT (Greenwald, McGhee and Schwartz, 1998)
  4. evaluative priming (Russell Fazio, 1995)

Answer: B

7. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which attitudes are acquired?

  1. observational learning
  2. classical conditioning
  3. operant reinforcement
  4. negative inhibition

Answer: D

8. Which of the following is NOT an explicit method of attitude measure?

  1. Facial electromyography
  2. Likert (1932) scale
  3. Equal Appearing Intervals method (Thurstone and Chave, 1929)
  4. semantic differential scales (Osgood, Suci and Tannebaum, 1957)

Answer: A

9. A good measure of any psychological construct must be ______.

  1. quantitative and cumulative
  2. reliable and valid
  3. flexible and open-ended
  4. cost-effective and efficient

Answer: B

10. Which is a criticism of direct measures of attitudes?

  1. impression management
  2. Sometimes individuals might not be aware of their underlying attitude toward an object.
  3. Subtle differences in item presentation can influence responses.
  4. all of these

Answer: D

11. Suppose a researcher claims that hand palm reading can be used as a measure of attitudes. It is unlikely, but if this proves to be a reliable and valid attitude measure, we would discuss this in the next edition of this book as ______.

  1. a direct measure
  2. an indirect measure
  3. a semantic differential
  4. evaluative priming

Answer: B

12. Which dimensions would typically be part of a semantic differential if this was to be used as an attitude measure?

  1. favorable/unfavorable; fast/slow; strong/weak
  2. good/bad; strong/weak; old/young
  3. good/bad; favorable/unfavorable; positive/negative
  4. favorable/unfavorable; open/closed; warm/cold

Answer: C