Chapter 10: The External World
1. Cacioppo and Petty’s (1979) experiment on message repetition showed that ______.
- message repetition increased persuasion
- message repetition decreased persuasion
- message repetition increased persuasion only to a point (three exposures), after which it decreased persuasion
- message repetition decreased persuasion only to a point (three exposures), after which it increased persuasion
2. In McGuire’s (1964) research on resistance to persuasion, ______.
- supportive defenses provided people with information supporting the belief that was about to be attacked
- refutational defenses provided people with strong arguments against the belief that was about to be attacked
- supportive defenses worked better when they increased people’s perceptions of the consensus supporting the belief that was about to be attacked
- all of these
3. In testing messages on different topics, Zackary Tormala and Richard Petty (2007) found that ______.
- the amount of information in a prior, irrelevant message does not affect the perceived amount of information in the current message
- those who thought they had received relatively more knowledge from the current message agreed more highly with that it
- greater persuasion occurs when there is more information in a prior, irrelevant message than in the current message
- the source of a message has no effect when a prior message contains little information
4. Which of these research findings is correct?
- Narratives can shape attitudes.
- Readers who became involved in a story subsequently reported attitudes more congruent with the narrative’s theme.
- Transportation causes people to temporarily lose access to some of their real world knowledge and are unable to counter-argue persuasive arguments that they encounter within the story.
- all of these
5. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
- Moderate repetition increases message comprehension and persuasion for strong messages, but causes less persuasion for weak messages.
- Our resistance to a message can increase resistance to subsequent messages on the same topic, as long we see our initial resistance as being legitimate.
- Message repetition elicits more persuasion only for people in collectivist cultures.
- Our resistance to a message can increase resistance to subsequent messages on the same topic, as long we see our initial resistance as being legitimate, and message repetition elicits more persuasion only for people in collectivist cultures.
6. Following from research by Brinol (2007), people who are made to feel powerful after hearing a message arguing for the reduction of nuclear weapons should be more likely than control participants to ______.
- be influenced by the strength of the arguments
- agree with the concrete recommendation
- think concretely about the message
- be influenced by the views of others
7. Balance Theory suggests that people mentally represent ______.
- their own attitudes toward an object
- another person’s attitudes toward the object
- their own attitude toward the other person
- all of these
8. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
- Consistent with Balance theory, there is evidence that people seek harmony between their attitudes and those of others.
- Inconsistency between personal attitudes and the attitudes of our others important to us (e.g., our parents) may lead to feelings of ambivalence.
- Personal power may increase our openness to subsequent new arguments and increase reliance on prior beliefs and feelings.
- Our attitudes may be influenced by the behavior of others with whom we identify.
9. Which is NOT a plausible explanation of the influence of groups on individuals’ judgment and attitudes?
- People adapt their opinions to their social groups because of a desire to be liked.
- People adapt their opinions to their social groups because of a desire to be right/accurate.
- Conformity helps us to avoid a state of cognitive dissonance that occurs when our views don’t match those of our group.
- Conformity drives are generally lower than the strong motive to express one’s own values and beliefs.
10. Norms describing what people should do are referred to as ______.
- descriptive norms
- social norms
- injunctive norms
- personal norms
11. Cialdini (2003) reported that people are least likely to litter when the environment is ______.
- clean and they see a model litter
- clean and they see a model who does not litter
- dirty and they see a model litter
- dirty and they see a model who does not litter
12. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
- The imagined presence of others may shape attitudes.
- Knowing what people do (descriptive norms) has a different effect on attitudes and behavior than knowing what people think we should do (injunctive norms).
- Consistent minorities can influence majority opinion significantly.
- Minority and majority status do not differ in their effects on persuasion.