Chapter 5: Cognitive Influences on Attitudes
1. Which of the following is NOT a model of persuasion?
- the Information Processing Paradigm
- the Cognition-in-Persuasion Model
- the Social Judgment Model
- the Five Factor Model
2. According to the Yale Model of Persuasion, the incentive for attitude change is influenced by ______.
- the source of the persuasive communication
- the content of the persuasive communication
- the audience
- all of these
3. Which of the following statements is true?
- People who list more favorable cognitive responses to a persuasive communication usually express more agreement with the message.
- There is correlational, but no experimental evidence supporting the importance of cognitive responses in shaping attitudes.
- Belief change can occur only by altering both the expectancies associated with the beliefs and the values associated with them.
- A message’s total effect on a person does not include effects on beliefs not targeted in the message.
4. Which of the following is NOT a postulate of the Elaboration Likelihood Model?
- People are motivated to hold correct attitudes.
- People take an objective view of their beliefs when listening to a persuasive argument.
- The amount and nature of issue-relevant elaboration can vary.
- Variables can affect attitudes by serving as arguments, cues, or factors that affect the nature and amount of elaboration.
5. Which of the following is NOT a postulate of the Elaboration Likelihood Model?
- The motivation to process a message objectively does not elicit argument scrutiny.
- The motivation and ability to process arguments causes increased use of arguments and lower use of cues.
- Biased processing of a message leads to biased issue-relevant thoughts.
- Elaborate processing of a message causes new, strong attitudes.
6. The Heuristic-Systematic Model (Chaiken, 1987) proposes that ______.
- people expend more effort to assess the quality of message arguments when the motivation and ability to process the message are high than when they are low
- people expend systematic processing when motivation and ability to process the message are high than when they are low
- people will be more likely to utilize simple persuasive cues, or heuristics, when the motivation and ability to process a message are low
- all of these
7. Which is NOT a key assumption of the Heuristic-Systematic Model?
- the ability hypothesis
- the additivity hypothesis
- the dual-motivation hypothesis
- the bias hypothesis
8. Mention a difference between Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Heuristic-Systematic Model (HSM).
- The ELM focuses on the motivation to attain correct attitudes, while the HSM predicts that people can be motivated to attain a correct attitude, an attitude that is socially desirable, or an attitude that expresses personal identity and values.
- The HSM allows for cues such as expertise to act as a heuristic, a biasing factor, or as a partial trigger for more processing, whereas the ELM does not.
- The ELM permits multiple roles for variables in the persuasion context whereas the HSM does not.
- The ELM proposes that people can weigh the strengths or weaknesses more strongly when any of several “biasing” factors are present, whereas the HSM does not.
9. Which of the following statements on dual-process models is correct?
- They predict that the effects of persuasive information depend on the motivation and ability to scrutinize the information.
- Lower motivation and ability cause cues or heuristics to exert a greater effect on attitudes.
- High motivation and ability causes message content to exert a greater effect on attitudes.
- all of these
10. Which of the following statements on dual-process models is correct?
- Complex information may increase reliance on cues even when personal relevance is high.
- Cues and message arguments still have different effects even if they are made equally relevant and easy to process.
- They take meta-cognitions into account.
- They have taken into account how people think about their thoughts.
11. A teacher tells his students that in order to enhance the value of their diploma, he will be much stricter in marking their exams than they are used to. What is likely to happen, according to the Elaboration Likelihood Model?
- The message may influence the students' implicit but not their explicit attitudes towards the stricter regime.
- The students will generate relatively many cognitive responses.
- The students will process the message, but because most don't agree, they will rely on peripheral cues instead of arguments.
- Clever students agree, academically poorer students disagree.
12. Meta-cognitions in a persuasion context are ______.
- thoughts about the personal relevance of the message
- a form of mind wandering with no connection to the persuasive message
- positive or negative cognitive responses with regard to the message content and which determine the direction of attitude change
- thoughts we may have about the thoughts generated by the message