Chapter 6: Affective Influences on Attitudes

1. What is the mere exposure effect?

  1. the suggestion that mere exposure to a stimulus may be sufficient, even without direct interaction, to evoke a positive attitude
  2. the suggestion that mere exposure to a stimulus may evoke a negative attitude
  3. the “Familiarity breeds contempt” phenomenon
  4. the suggestion that intensive exposure to an object has a “turning off” effect because of over familiarity

Answer: A

2. Which statement is true about the mere exposure effect?

  1. The effect can occur for liked objects only.
  2. The effect can occur for liked and disliked objects, though it may be weaker for disliked ones.
  3. The effect can occur for liked and neutral objects, but not for disliked ones.
  4. The effect can occur for neutral objects only.

Answer: B

3. An explanation for the subliminal mere exposure effect is that ______.

  1. perceptual fluency elicits positive affect
  2. people like an object that they think they have seen many times before, even if they have not actually seen it
  3. at the conscious level, recognition of a stimulus reduces uncertainty about the stimulus; at the non-conscious level, people may find it easier to process an object that has been the object of implicit learning through subliminal exposure
  4. all of these

Answer: D

4. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  1. Mere exposure may elicit negative attitudes by increasing a sense of certainty and familiarity with the attitude object.
  2. The generation of boredom from mere exposure works against the effects of habituation that can occur at conscious and non-conscious levels.
  3. Non-conscious habituation occurs when subliminal exposure makes it easier to process similar stimuli, enhancing feelings of familiarity and positive mood.
  4. We form more positive attitudes toward people or things we have seen many times, especially when we cannot remember the past encounters.

Answer: A

5. The repeated presentation of an attitude object paired with an affective is called ______.

  1. classical conditioning
  2. exposure conditioning
  3. behavior conditioning
  4. none of these

Answer: B

6. Based on De Houwer and colleagues’ (2001) review of evaluative conditioning, which statement is NOT true?

  1. Evaluative conditioning can only occur in conditions where classical conditioning does.
  2. Attitudes formed from evaluative conditioning are resistant to change from extinction procedures.
  3. Evaluative conditioning is effective even when the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) and the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) occur together only a fraction of the time.
  4. The effects do not appear to depend on conscious awareness of the link between the CS and the US.

Answer: A

7. What do we call it when someone sees and experiences he emotional response that happens to another person who has performed a particular behavior?

  1. evaluative conditioning
  2. behavior conditioning
  3. observational conditioning
  4. classical conditioning

Answer: C

8. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

  1. Explicit and implicit measures of attitudes can be influenced by the repeated presentation of an attitude object with an affective sensation.
  2. Subtle reward following a behavior tends to elicit more favorable attitudes toward the behavior than when punishment or no reward occurs.
  3. People may acquire a model’s emotional responses to a behavior through vicarious conditioning.
  4. Moods have no effect on attitude.

Answer: D

9. The Mood-Congruence effect is the tendency for people to ______.

  1. behave contrary to their mood to project control
  2. express attitudes that match their current mood
  3. express attitudes that are the opposite of their current mood
  4. internalize their current mood

Answer: B

10. Which statement is NOT correct about mood function?

  1. Mood can function as a source of information.
  2. Mood can function as a predictor of cognitive abilities.
  3. Mood can function as a resource.
  4. Mood can function as a goal.

Answer: B