Chapter 8: Basic Principles in How Attitudes are Shaped
1. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
- Attitude change cannot occur without awareness.
- Attitudes can be influenced by information that has, at best, weak relevance to the attitude object.
- The impact of weak information on attitudes can be reduced when people possess high motivation and ability to form a correct attitude.
- Attitude change partly depends on whether messages emphasize the content, structure, or functions that are the basis for the recipient’s own attitude.
2. Which of the following variables does NOT have an influence on the influence of a persuasive message?
- rate of speech
- sleep pattern
- positive versus negative framing of the attributes
3. Based on findings in your text (e.g., Howard and Kerin, 2011), which of the following candidates has the best chance of winning an election in the English City of York?
- L. Smith
- M. van Knippenberg
- Y. Pandolfo
- Z. Baskerville
4. Based on Sherman, Nelson, and Steele’s (2000) research, the opportunity to self-affirm on an important value ______.
- reduced defensiveness among individuals most affected by the threatening content of the persuasive message
- increased defensiveness among individuals most affected by the threatening content of the persuasive message
- reduced defensiveness among individuals least affected by the threatening content of the persuasive message
- none of these
5. Which is correct about introspection?
- Introspection about why we feel the way we do does not cause people to change their attitudes.
- Introspection blocks the effects of persuasive arguments.
- Introspection appears to be more accurate when we have very high knowledge about an attitude object.
- Introspection is always used while considering a persuasive argument.
6. Which of the following is correct?
- We are always aware of the real reasons why we hold particular attitudes.
- Attitudes may be produced by implicit processing that occurs unintentionally and without awareness.
- Attitudes are never produced by explicit processing.
- Subliminal cues will not affect attitudes and behavior when people are experiencing a need that is relevant to the cue.
7. Probabilogical models of attitude change ______.
- predict how a person’s belief in a conclusion may change when their belief in a related premise was altered
- ignore the logical processes that connect beliefs
- look at beliefs regarding an attitude object as specific and isolated
- all of these
8. Which of the following is NOT correct?
- Attitudes are influenced by people’s views of the logical relations between beliefs that underpin the attitudes.
- Strong attitudes are more resistant to change.
- Information presented early in a persuasion sequence affects the construal of later information.
- Learning about high source credibility beforehand increases disagreement with the message.
9. According to Smith and Schaffer (2000), which message would have higher argument scrutiny?
- Alcohol slows reaction times, resulting in “bloody, bone-crushing accidents”.
- Alcohol slows reaction times “to a snail’s pace”.
- Alcohol makes reaction times move like a “slow boat to Canada”.
- Alcohol slows reaction times.
10. Hirsh, Kang, and Bodenhausen (2012) explored whether ______.
- matching an appeal to an attitude’s function increases persuasion
- matching an appeal to an attitude’s content increases persuasion
- personality-based matching effects would be found for the “Big Five” measures of personality
- matching an appeal to an attitude’s structure increases persuasion
11. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
- Affective messages are more persuasive among individuals who are higher in the need for affect.
- Cognitive messages are more persuasive among people who are higher in the need for cognition.
- The need for affect is the tendency to seek out end enjoy emotional experiences.
- The need for cognition is the tendency to seek out and enjoy effortless cognitive tasks.
12. Websites can create targeted adverts that match individuals’ personality traits. According to studies cited in your text (esp., Matz, Kosinski, Nave, and Stillwell, 2017), this approach is ______.
- an ineffective means of persuasion
- an effective means of persuasion
- an effective means of eliciting a low self-monitoring orientation
- an effective means of eliciting a high self-monitoring orientation
13. If you know that a client wants to gain fitness, what’s the best way to convince the client to buy a new meal plan? You should emphasize that the plan can ______.
- enhance strength and endurance
- cause fat loss
- prevent missing out on getting energized
- enhance strength and endurance and cause fat loss