Chapter 9: The Internal World

1. Self-report measures of attitudes ______.

  1. are the same as implicit measures
  2. control for social desirability
  3. can easily determine underlying attitudes
  4. ask people to make an active and deliberate consideration of their attitude

Answer: D

2. Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. Specific motor actions are deeply tied to different levels of approval or disapproval.
  2. Facial expressions influence emotion.
  3. Bodily actions associated with a particular evaluative tendency can influence how we process information.
  4. all of these

Answer: D

3. In MacDonald, Zanna, and Fong’s (1995) research on alcohol myopia it was concluded that ______.

  1. intoxication resulted in more negative attitudes about drinking and driving
  2. alcohol has no impact on an individual’s attitudes and decisions
  3. campaigns to further reduce the incidence of drunk driving should attempt to target individuals when they are likely to be intoxicated
  4. all of these

Answer: C

4. In the experiments by Martin, Laing, Martin, and Mitchell (2005), how does caffeine influence attitudinal processes?

  1. Caffeine reduces the cognitive processing of arguments.
  2. Participants who had consumed caffeine showed no attitude change.
  3. Participants in the caffeine group showed less ability to recall the message.
  4. Participants in the caffeine group’s greater positivity of thoughts about the message accounted for their degree of attitude change.

Answer: D

5. Studying heritability attitudes, Tesser and Crelia (1994) found that ______.

  1. individuals were found to provide answers more quickly for high than low heritability attitudes
  2. individuals found agreement feedback more reinforcing when the agreement occurred for highly heritable attitudes than when it occurred for less heritable attitudes
  3. attitude strength was associated with attitude heritability
  4. all of these

Answer: D

6. Which of the following is NOT correct?

  1. Alcohol affects our attitudes.
  2. Caffeine influences the attention individuals devote to persuasive messages.
  3. Genes have no direct or indirect effect on attitudes.
  4. There is an indirect link between genes and attitudes.

Answer: C

7. If a researcher is interested in determining the location and time course of a particular activity in the brain, they are likely to get better results using ______.

  1. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) only
  2. magnetoencephelography (MEG) only
  3. the complementary strengths offered by fMRI and MEG.
  4. the complementary strengths offered by electroencephalography and positron emission tomography

Answer: C

8. Neuroscientific research has demonstrated that ______.

  1. there is no association between the amygdala and affective processing of information
  2. the amygdala is involved in assessing the emotional significance of stimuli, that is, both positive and negative stimuli that are relevant to a person’s current goal or situation
  3. the amygdala appears to be relevant to attitude accessibility
  4. ratings of ambivalence were not significantly correlated with activity in this area of the ventrolateral pre frontal cortex

Answer: B

9. In Lieberman and colleagues’ (2001) research on behavior-induced attitude change, it was concluded that ______ to elicit behavior-induced attitude change.

  1. explicit memory is necessary
  2. explicit memory is not required
  3. implicit memory is required
  4. amnesic patients were unable

Answer: B

10. Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. There is a curvilinear relation between age and susceptibility to attitude change, with greater susceptibility among young adults and the elderly.
  2. There is no plausible explanation for the relation between age and attitude change.
  3. When people are made to feel that time is short, they show less openness to attitude change than when they feel that time is expansive.
  4. all of these

Answer: A