SAGE Journal Articles
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Stevens, T., Morash, M., & Park, S. (2011). Late-adolescent delinquency: Risks and resilience for girls differing in risk at the start of adolescence. Youth & Society, 43(4), 1433-1458.
Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of late-adolescent delinquency were compared for girls in and below the top 10% in self-reported early-adolescent delinquency. Girls who were higher in delinquency in early adolescence were resilient by 2002 if they had no incarcerated family members and high parental monitoring. Girls with little or no early delinquency were at risk for illegal activity by age 17 primarily due to contextual adversities, low hope for the future, poverty status, and minority racial status. Persistently delinquent girls require programming to address multiple risk and protective factors over an extended time. To prevent delinquency beginning later in adolescence, girls need safe community and school contexts.
Questions to Consider:
- What are the risk and protective factors associated with late-adolescent delinquency in females?
- Discuss the implications of this article for counselors working with late-adolescent females.
- Describe the role of resiliency in preventing delinquency in at-risk late-adolescent females.
Molfese, V.J., Modglin, A., & Molfese, D.L. (2003). The role of environment in the development of reading skills: A longitudinal study of preschool and school-age measures. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 59-67.
The purpose of this study was to extend previous studies on the influence of environmental measures on intelligence scores by examining how proximal and distal measures of children's environments in the preschool period and in the primary-grade period are related to their performance on reading achievement tests. Reading performance was explored using two approaches. The first approach involved the identification of children within a longitudinal sample who had poor reading skills at 8 years of age. The second approach used the full range of reading scores to explore whether factors influencing poor reading were different from those influencing good reading. Participants were 113 children, including 35 children with poor reading skills, who were part of a longitudinal study of cognitive development. Socioeconomic status (SES), Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores at 3 and 10 years of age, and school-administered and individually administered reading achievement scores were obtained. Both SES and HOME scores were found to be related to reading abilities, but preschool environment measures were more strongly and consistently related to and predictive of reading scores. Differences in the patterns of correlations and the results of the predictive models were found between the full sample and the poor readers. Variables other than proximal and distal measures of the environment are involved in the development of reading skills.
Questions to Consider:
- Describe the relevance of SES and HOME scores as they relate to reading abilities in children.
- Discuss possible intervention strategies to improve reading skills for children in preschool environments.
- What are the implications of the biopsychosocial approach in the development of reading skills?