SAGE Journal Articles
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Flynn, M., & Rudolph, K.D. (2014). A prospective examination of emotional clarity, stress responses, and depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 34(7), 923–939.
This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one’s emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early adolescence. Participants included 636 youth (338 girls, 298 boys; X age in fourth grade = 9.95, SD = .37) who completed measures assessing emotional clarity, stress responses, and depressive symptoms. Consistent with the hypothesized model, path analyses revealed that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses partially mediated the prospective contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to depressive symptoms. These findings implicate impairment in emotional understanding as a precursor to emerging interpersonal and psychological difficulties during a developmental stage of heightened vulnerability to depression, the transition to adolescence.
Questions to Consider:
- Describe emotional awareness, emotional clarity, and deficits to emotional clarity.
- Discuss the results of the study, the implications with respect to gender differences, and the implications for counselors, educators, and parents of early adolescents.
- Explain the concepts of mediation by engagement coping and involuntary stress response.
Sharabany, R., Eshel, Y., & Hakim, C. (2008). Boyfriend, girlfriend in a traditional society: Parenting styles and development of intimate friendships among Arabs in school. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32(1), 66–75.
The development of intimate same- and other-sex friendships in Arab children and adolescents in Israel was investigated in relation to their perceived parenting styles. It was hypothesized that girls would show higher levels of intimacy than boys, and that cross-sex intimacy in both groups would increase with age, whereas same-sex intimate friendship maintains rather stable over the school years. We hypothesized further that intimate friendship would be contingent more readily on perceived parental authoritative style rather than on either permissive or authoritarian styles. Participants were 723 Arab students drawn from four schools, and from the 5th, 7th, 9th, and 11th grades. The Parental Authority Questionnaire and Intimate Friendship Scale were employed as measures. Findings indicated that girls were more intimate with their female friends than boys were with their male friends, especially in the higher grades, replicating previous studies. However, boys tended to score higher than girls on intimacy with the other gender. Girls equaled their level of intimacy only at the 11th grade. These findings suggest that traditional societies may foster specific characteristics of intimate friendship. A novel finding is the central role of the authoritative parenting style in determining intimate friendships. Results are discussed in terms of universal aspects of friendship and of their expression in the investigated cultural setting.
Questions to Consider:
- Discuss the social outcomes associated with parenting style.
- Explore the importance of intimacy in friendships during early adolescence.
- Outline the study’s findings on the impacts of culture on the development of friendship and intimacy.