SAGE Journal Articles
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Sheikh, S. (2014). Cultural variations in shame’s responses: A dynamic perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 18(4), 387–403.
The diverse literature on shame has led to disparate and often contradictory conclusions regarding the emotion’s nature and consequences. The article proposes a motivational theory of shame that accounts for these discrepant findings. The first part of the article uses the concept of active avoidance to outline a dynamic motivational perspective in which shame is based initially in behavioral inhibition that then incorporates subsequent behavioral activation. The motivational shift is guided by shame’s relational phenomenology and the normative beliefs associated with shame. In the second part, the motivational perspective is used to account for variations in shame’s consequences. Externalizing and restorative tendencies of shame are culturally variable and due to differences in behavioral activation associated with the emotion. However, withdrawal tendencies occur across cultural contexts because of shame’s basis in inhibition. Issues in conducting cross-cultural studies on emotion and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Questions to Consider:
- Describe the concepts of shame and self-regulation.
- Discuss the cultural implications of shame, such as its positive connotation in collectivist cultures.
- Compare shame and its restorative consequences in Western and non-Western societal contexts.
Nochera, C.L., Goossen, L.H., Brutus, A.R., Cristales, M., & Eastman, B. (2011). Consumption of DHA + EPA by low-income women during pregnancy and lactation. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 26(4), 445-450.
Background: The ω-3-fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important in infant brain development and maturation. The advisable intake of the ω-3 fatty acids DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for pregnant and lactating women is 300 mg/d or 9 g/month. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that low-income pregnant/or lactating women do not consume advisable amounts of DHA+EPA and to determine whether any of the measured demographic factors were related to DHA and EPA consumption. Methods: This study was conducted September 2007 to March 2008 and used the N-3 Fatty Acid Food Frequency Questionnaire for dietary assessment in a convenience sample of women (N = 68) enrolled in a local maternal infant health program. Women who reported fish or seafood allergies were excluded. The monthly consumption of DHA+EPA from food sources was measured, and participant race, ethnicity, country of origin, primary language, level of education, marital status, intake of prenatal vitamins containing DHA+EPA, and warnings of fish toxicity were assessed. The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and t tests. Results: The average reported DHA+EPA intake was 1.18 g/month across all race/ethnicities. African Americans consumed significantly more DHA+EPA, 2.79 g/month, compared with Hispanics (1.64 g) and Caucasians (0.93 g). United States natives consumed significantly more DHA+EPA than immigrants (2.45 g vs 1.55 g). Conclusions: Low-income pregnant/and lactating women in the study consumed less than the advisable amounts of DHA+EPA. Both ethnicity and country of origin are related to DHA+EPA intake.
Questions to Consider:
- Discuss the neurological benefits of DHA and EPA.
- Which factors are most closely related to DHA and EPA consumption? Why?
- What are the psychoeducational responsibilities of counseling professionals working with pregnant and lactating mothers?