SAGE Journal Articles

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Article 1: Maccoby, E. E. (2000). Perspectives on gender development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 398–406.

Learning Objective: Understanding necessity of the psychobiological perspective for understanding gender development and dimorphism

Summary: The author first reviews two traditional perspectives of gender development—the socialization and cognitive perspectives—and both their strong sides and shortcomings. These perspectives are good in explaining some aspects of gender but not some of the most prominent gender dimorphisms; in order to understand them, a psychobiological perspective must be applied.

Questions to Consider:

  1. How is gender formed, according to the socialization perspective?
  2. According to cognitive perspective, what causes individual differences in gender development?
  3. What makes the psychobiological perspective superior to the socialization and cognitive perspectives?


Article 2: Reis, H. T., & Carothers, B. J. (2014). Black and white or shades of gray: Are gender differences categorical or dimensional? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(1), 19–26.

Learning Objective: Understanding taxonomic and dimensional approaches to gender

Summary: Sex is often observed as a dichotomy, especially among lay audiences. The dimensional approach to sex differences is more recent and observes gender as a relative position on continuous dimensions. The authors have conducted a taxonomic research, with results strongly suggesting that sex differences are dimensional.

Questions to Consider:

  1. What is a taxonomic approach?
  2. Why is a dimensional approach to sex differences more appropriate than a taxonomic one? What does it mean in real life?
  3. Think of some examples of how you discuss gender in everyday situations. Do you employ a more taxonomic or a more dimensional approach?


Article 3: Inozemtseva, O., Matute, E., & Juárez, J. (2008). Learning disabilities spectrum and sexual dimorphic abilities in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Journal of Child Neurology, 23, 862–869.

Learning Objective: Understanding cognitive pattern of girls with CAH. Broadening knowledge on the influence of hormones on cognition.

Summary: The authors research cognitive patterns of girls with CAH. While CAH is related to variations in IQ, girls with the disorder actually demonstrate lower abilities in verbal and reading-related tasks. The effect of hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive abilities is discussed.

Questions to Consider:

  1. What are sexually dimorphic abilities?
  2. According to the findings of this study, what happens with the executive functions of girls with CAH?
  3. What are some possible explanations for learning disabilities in girls with CAH?