Traditional Media – Characteristics and Planning

Journal Articles

The first three articles have been provided open access. Some links require journal subscription access which may be available through your university.

Chang, B-H. and Chan-Olmsted, S.M. (2005), Relative constancy of advertising spending – a cross national examination of advertising expenditures and their determinants, Gazette: The International Journal for Communication Studies, Vol. 67, No. 4, pp. 339–367.

This article is based on an empirical study across 70 countries over time. The authors look at the principle of relative constancy (PRC, based on the relationship between level of advertising spend and the general state of an economy) and the relationship between advertising spending and GDP as a variable within national economies. The results suggest that this relationship is not proportionate and therefore there is potentially a different variable or variables at play that affect a country’s advertising expenditure. The authors also suggest that the degree of applicability to the PRC might be different depending upon media types and characteristics of nations, especially since the PRC seems more apparent in developing nations.



Kawashima, N. (2006), Advertising agencies, media and consumer market: the changing quality of TV advertising in Japan, Media, Culture and Society, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 393–410.

The idea that people are surrounded by edited material such as newspaper articles but also advertisements is not a new one. This article looks at advertising within media culture and the immediate economic and industrial framework in which advertising is produced such as in commercial broadcasting and newspaper publishing. In particular, as the title suggests, the article addresses the issue of quality in Japanese television commercials which involves fragmentation and loss of revenue to a shift toward sponsorships as well as the influence of technology on the TV medium itself which is allowing consumers to take more control of what they actually watch. The interface between the TV medium in Japan and creativity (and especially the use of celebrity endorsers as the creative platform) is explored and critiqued. The argument is extended into media culture and more generally consumer society.



Overby, L.M. and Barth, J. (2006), Radio advertising in American political campaigns – the persistence, importance and effects of narrowcasting, American Politics Research, Vol. 34, No 4, pp. 451–478.

This article is based on a study of American electoral dynamics through the use of radio (rather than television) campaigns and the possibilities for narrowcasting. The authors examine, through the use of empirical data to look at the factors that influence exposure to radio advertisements, the public’s perception of the importance of such advertisements and the impact of exposure on public perception of the quality of the democratic process. The authors conclude, among other things, that the American public appear to like the idea of narrowcasting and customised messages that speak to them about local issues, which appears to be in opposition to the notion of open dialogue.


Reid, L.N. and King, K.W. (2003), Advertising managers’ perceptions of sales effects and creative properties of national newspaper advertising: the medium revisited, Journal of Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 410–430.

Sales effects of newspaper advertising through the eyes of advertising managers are the focus of this article. The study looks at delivery effectiveness, sales effects and creative properties of advertising. The study found that in comparison to network TV, newspapers fared poorly in terms of effectiveness on these three parameters but were judged to be effective in terms of immediate sales and the ability to deliver both simple and complex messages. The authors conclude that the more spent with national newspapers by the manager’s company the more effective the medium was perceived to be.


Soh, H., Reid, L.N. and King, K.W. (2007), Trust in different advertising media, Journal of Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 84, No. 3, pp. 455–476.

This article looks at consumer trust in advertising media and the relationship with media credibility. The study on which it is based found that consumers appear neutral regarding this issue, neither trusting nor distrusting advertising media but that this level of trust does vary across different media. Education and income appear to be parameters and trust and credibility appear to correlate.