Relevant sources and films

Relevant Sources

  • Helms, J. E. (1995). An update of Helm’s White and people of color racial identity models. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 181–198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Vandiver, B. J., Fhagen-Smith, P. E., Cokley, K. O., Cross, W. E., Jr., & Worrell, F. C. (2001). Cross’s Nigrescence model: From theory to scale to theory. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development29, 174–200.
  • Ruiz, A. S. (1990). Ethnic identity: Crisis and resolution. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development18, 29–40.
  • McGoldrick, M. (1996). In M. McGoldrick, J. Pearce, & J. Giordano (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 1–27). New York, NY: Guilford.
  • Phinney, J. S., & Ong, A. D. (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology54(3), 271–281.
  • Lee, S. M., Puig, A., Pasquarella-Daley, L., & Denny, G. (2007). Revising the White racial consciousness development scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development39(4), 194.


Relevant Films

  • Preschool in Three Cultures (55 min., Yale University Press). 
    This video companion to the book of the same name presents a typical day in a Japanese, a Chinese, and an American preschool and provides a unique perspective on each from the teachers and staff of these schools. Students can easily identify instances of individualism and collectivism in this video.
  • A Question of Identity: What Is Race? (23 min., Films for the Humanities & Sciences). 
    This ABC News program follows a high school principal’s investigation of his own DNA ancestry and ethnic identity.
  • Divided We Stand (49 min., Films for the Humanities & Sciences).
    This BBC production examines the logic behind theories linking race and intellectual abilities.
  • Intelligence (75 min., National Film Board of Canada).
    This film explores definitions of intelligence based on encounters with a large variety of people and other living things.
  • Skin Deep: The Science of Race (60 min., Filmakers Library).
    This video uses interviews with scientific experts, authors, and experienced others to challenge the validity of genetic definitions of race.
  • Banana Split (37 min., NAATA). 
    This experimental video explores interracial dating patterns and issues of biracial identity.
  • Just Black? (57 min., Filmakers Library). 
    A series of interviews with young people of multiracial backgrounds that examine issues of friendships, family, dating, and identity.
  • Living in the Hyphen: Cultural Identity in a Multiethnic Society (44 min., Films for the Humanities & Sciences). 
    This award-winning video examines the experiences of poet Fred Wah and six other Canadians of multiethnic backgrounds.
  • None of the Above (23 min., Filmakers Library). 
    Filmmaker Erika Surat Andersen explores her own mixed ethnic background and the experiences of others of different mixed ancestry in order to investigate being racially unclassifiable in today’s race-conscious society.
  • A Question of Color (56 min., California Newsreel).
    This documentary explores the interplay between racism and self-concept in terms of “color consciousness” about hair, skin color, and facial features among African Americans.
  • Two Lies (25 min., Women Make Movies). 
    A Chinese woman undergoes surgery to make her eyes appear less Asian and, she believes, more attractive—a decision that is challenged by her teenage daughter.
  • Despair (56 min., Filmakers Library).
    This documentary presents multiethnic perspectives on the experience and treatment of depression.
  • Multicultural Counseling (Vol. 1, 28 min., Insight Media).
    Seven vignettes focus on a variety of issues that arise when the client and counselor are culturally different. Volume 1 (Ethnic Issues) addresses situations involving race and ethnicity.
  • The Politics of Love: In Black and White (28 min., California Newsreel).
    This documentary provides a balanced approach to the joys, challenges, and social implications of interracial romance among college students.
  • American Sons (41 min., NAATA).
    Interviews with Asian American men raise provocative issues about the impact of racism.
  • Blue Eyed (93 min., California Newsreel).
    A summation of Jane Elliott’s work in antiracism training, including a demonstration of Elliot’s powerful simulation, which involves dividing a group of participants into those with brown eyes and those with blue eyes.
  • Can You See the Color Gray? (54 min., University of California Extension).
    Children and young adults respond to questions about race/ethnicity and prejudice.
  • Color Adjustment (33 min., California Newsreel). 
    Marlon Riggs’s examination of 40 years of racial myths and stereotypes on American television.
  • Ethnic Notions (56 min., California Newsreel). 
    Marlon Riggs’s classic examination of the stereotyped images of African Americans used by White society to justify racism.
  • Skin Deep (53 min., California Newsreel). 
    Filmmaker Francis Reid follows a diverse group of students through a racial awareness workshop in this powerful film.
  • True Colors (19 min., Coronet/MTI Film and Video).
    In this segment from the newsmagazine PrimeTime, cameras follow two men, one White and one Black, as they attempt to purchase goods, rent an apartment, and find a job. The results provide a clear demonstration of the subtlety of “modern racism” and the prevalence of White privilege in the United States.
  • Understanding Prejudice (50 min., Films for the Humanities & Sciences). 
    Provides an overview of the phenomenon of prejudice, including historical perspectives, key terms, and forms of prejudice.