Chapter 1: New forms of provision, new ways of working: The Pen Green Centre

Widen your reading by taking a look at this list of useful journal articles. 

Article 1: Bailey, D. B., Jr. (2001). Evaluating parent involvement and family support in early intervention and preschool programs. Journal of Early Intervention, 24(1), 1-14.

Abstract: Early intervention and preschool programs for children with disabilities are also accountable for providing certain types of support for families. How should these efforts be evaluated? This article describes three potential levels of accountability: (a) providing the legally required services for families, (b) providing services that are considered recommended, and (c) achieving certain outcomes as a result of working with families. Issues and considerations related to each level of accountability are discussed and recommendations are made for advancing policy and practice related to the evaluation of parent involvement and family support efforts.


Article 2: Wehman, T. (1998). Family-centered early intervention services: Factors contributing to increased parent involvement and participation. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 13(2), 80-86.

Abstract: The focus of early intervention and the roles that parents play in planning and implementing services have evolved from an institution/agency approach to a child-centred approach and finally to a family-centred approach. Parents, in their roles as consumers of early intervention services and advocates on behalf of their children, have had a significant impact on the development and implementation of family-centred services. This article provides an overview of two major factors that have influenced the level of parent/family participation in early intervention services. These include (a) an increased focus on families in both state and federal early intervention legislation and (b) the incorporation of social systems frameworks for better understanding child, parent, and family functioning. These conceptual frameworks include family systems theory, ecological theory, the transactional model of development, and social support theory. The article also summarizes the dimensions of family participation in early intervention program practices. Involvement of families in early intervention program services has generally taken two forms, one as teacher/therapist participant in service provision and the other as client or recipient of intervention services. This new client or recipient role for families continues to be the focus of many early intervention programs today.


Article 3: White, K. R., Taylor, M. J., & Moss, V. D. (1992). Does research support claims about the benefits of involving parents in early intervention programs? Review of Educational Research, 62(1), 91-125.

Abstract: It is widely believed that early intervention programs that involve parents are more effective than those that do not. After discussing the types of parent involvement programs that have been implemented in previous early intervention research and defining the benefits which are allegedly associated with the involvement of parents in early intervention programs, this article presents an analysis of the evidence from previous research regarding the alleged benefits. This analysis shows that there is no convincing evidence that the ways in which parents have been involved in previous early intervention research studies result in more effective outcomes. Possible reasons for the lack of observed benefits are offered, and suggestions are made for future research and practice.