Chapter 12: Developing PICL in primary schools, children’s centres and in childminder settings

Widen your reading by taking a look at this list of useful journal articles.

Article 1: Minke, K. M., & Scott, M. M. (1993). The development of individualized family service plans: Roles for parents and staff. Journal of Special Education, 27(1), 82-106.

Abstract: This naturalistic study investigated the development of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) in three early intervention programs attempting to actively involve parents in the planning process. Nine IFSP meetings were videotaped, and the principal participants were interviewed. A category system was developed: the portions presented here focus on roles taken by parents and staff. We concluded that parents have attained partial decision-making power at these sites, but that greater attention to parent participation is needed in goal setting, assessment, and negotiation. Recommendations are made for examining program practices and for future research.


Article 2: Wagner, M., Spiker, D., & Linn, M. I. (2002). The effectiveness of the Parents as Teachers program with low-income parents and children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(2), 67-81.

Abstract: The association between poverty and compromised development, particularly in the early years, has been well documented. Many early childhood programs have been designed to promote positive parenting and more enriched home environments in order to enhance children’s development. We describe findings from a multisite, randomized evaluation of the Parents as Teachers (PAT) program with 665 families, which was designed specifically to investigate the program’s effectiveness with low-income families. The observed effects of the PAT program on parenting and child development outcomes were generally small, with few statistically significant effects. More consistent positive effects were noted for very low-income parents and their children relative to more moderate income parents. The discussion focuses on the policy implications of the findings for the design and implementation of early childhood parenting programs for low-income families and future research.


Article 3: Turnbull, A. P., Summers, J. A., Turnbull, R., Brotherson, M. J., Winton, P., Roberts, R., . . . Stroup-Rentier, V. (2007). Family supports and services in early intervention: A bold vision. Journal of Early Intervention, 29(3), 187-206.

Abstract: This article utilizes four knowledge sources to characterize a current gap in policy and practice related to serving families in early intervention (birth to 5) programs. It argues that the field of early intervention has focused primarily on implementing family-centred practices by focusing on how families and professionals should interact. The field has not sufficiently addressed what supports and services should be offered to families to enhance the likelihood of positive outcomes for families themselves and for their children with disabilities. The paper concludes with recommendations for enhancing policy, research, and professional development related to family services and supports.