SAGE Journal Articles
Select SAGE journal articles are available to give you more insight into chapter topics. These are also an ideal resource to help support your literature reviews, dissertations and assignments.
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Abstract: Students design and perform an experiment to assess effects of fertilizers on the growth of radish seedlings for a graduate class in design and statistics. The goal of this project is to provide students practice in making design decisions, collecting and analyzing real data, and writing up results. An informal evaluation, based on written comments and a content analysis of the individual reports, suggests that this approach is a promising technique for teaching experimental design.
Abstract: Investigators rarely specify whether the effects noted in research findings apply to every individual or are an average of varying individual effects. Where it does address the matter at all, namely in experimental design texts, the literature gives conflicting messages. It is argued here that a deterministic view of causation, which is implied in most propositions in psychology, leads to the expectation that effects are constant. The problems and confusion that result from viewing such effects as variable are explicated. The consequences of not addressing the issue of effect constancy are to leave statements of findings and propositions unacceptably vague and to encourage, in general, imprecise thinking about substantive matters.
Abstract: Experimental designs that randomly assign entire clusters of individuals (e.g., schools and classrooms) to treatments are frequently advocated as a way of guarding against contamination of the estimated average causal effect of treatment. However, in the absence of contamination, experimental designs that randomly assign intact clusters to treatments are less efficient than designs that randomly assign individual units within clusters. The current article considers the case of contamination processes that tend to make experimental and control subjects appear more similar than they truly are.
Abstract: Much is known about short-term—but very little about the long-term—effects of reading interventions. To rectify this, a detailed analysis of follow-up effects as a function of intervention, sample, and methodological variables was conducted. A total of 71 intervention-control groups were selected (N = 8,161 at posttest) from studies reporting posttest and follow-up data (M = 11.17 months) for previously established reading interventions. The posttest effect sizes indicated effects (dw = 0.37) that decreased to follow-up (dw = 0.22). Overall, comprehension and phonemic awareness interventions showed good maintenance of effect that transferred to nontargeted skills, whereas phonics and fluency interventions, and those for preschool and kindergarten children, tended not to.