Brief learning objectives have been made available by the author, to assist you with your studies.
This chapter will enable a greater understanding of:
• How authoritarian regimes can be defined.
• The so-called ‘exceptionalism’ of authoritarianism in the Middle East since independence.
• The multiple forms of authoritarian rule in the region.
• The means of political participation for citizens under authoritarian regimes.
• Case studies (Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Turkey) highlighting the various mechanisms of authoritarian rule.