Learning Objectives

Brief learning objectives have been made available by the author, to assist you with your studies.


This chapter will enable a greater understanding of:
How authoritarian regimes can be defined.
The so-called ‘exceptionalism’ of authoritarianism in the Middle East since independence.
The multiple forms of authoritarian rule in the region.
The means of political participation for citizens under authoritarian regimes.
Case studies (Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Turkey) highlighting the various mechanisms of authoritarian rule.