Here is a timeline of key dates and events related to this chapter.

70 CE: Roman conquest of the Jewish kingdom in Palestine
325 CE: Adoption of the Nicene Creed as the official Christian profession of faith
622 CE: The Muslim community flees Mecca for Medina (hijra)
630 CE: The Muslim community return to Mecca
632–61: The Rashidun Caliphate (Mecca)
661–750: The Umayyad Caliphate (Damascus)
756–1031: The Umayyad Caliphate in Cordoba
750–1258: The `Abbasid Caliphate (Baghdad)
910–1171: The Fatimid Caliphate (Mahdia to 969, Cairo)
1250–1517: The Mamluk Caliphate (Baghdad)
1517–1923: The Ottoman Caliphate (Constantinople)
1536: First of the Capitulations Treaties signed between France and the Ottoman Empire
1798: Napoleon’s landing in Egypt
1805–49: Muhammad `Ali’s rule in Egypt
1834: Introduction of the tanzimat reforms
1876: Introduction of the first Ottoman constitution
1878: Suspension of the Ottoman constitution
1881: Creation of the Ottoman Public Debt Administration (OPDA)
1909: Reintroduction of the Ottoman constitution
1909–13: CUP control of Ottoman government