SAGE Journal Articles
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Abstract: Despite increasing numbers of women lawyers, gender segregation within the legal profession in the United States continues. The present article examines interorganizational differences in the employment of 34 men and 34 women lawyers in 12 in-house legal departments that varied by size and industry in corporations located in the northeast United States. There were differences among the firms with respect to the number, position, and salary of men and women lawyers. The findings suggest that women in-house counsel do not enter the same type of practice or organizations, obtain the same positions, or earn the same salaries as men. The differential employment patterns, the article concludes, stem largely from organizational contingencies, such as a firm's market position, perceived needs, the kinds of rewards and training offered, and recruitment strategies. It also suggests that men's and women's differential location in the labor pool results not from their own career choices but from employer's hiring and work-allocation decisions that provide them with different experiences and expertise, which in turn constrain future employment options.
Abstract: The FBI's new focus on white-collar crime is a topic of major concern to criminologists interested in the study of white-collar criminality. Despite the bureau's change in priorities, there are very important questions left unanswered about both the goals set and means employed in this new emphasis. We need to know specifics regarding (1) the FBI's definition of white-collar criminality; (2) the percentage of FBI resources being devoted to white-collar crime; (3) the nature of the white-collar crime cases being investigated; and (4) the manner in which such cases are being investigated. The goal of this article is to differentiate what we know from what we do not know about these matters and then to indicate what types of future studies must be undertaken to gain the answers to questions regarding the FBI's emphasis in this area.