SAGE Journal Articles

Social facilitation/social loafing

Gagné, M., & Zuckerman, M. (1999). Performance and learning goal orientations as moderators of social loafing and social facilitation. Small Group Research, 30, 524–41.

Bray, R. M., & Sugarman, R. (1980). Social facilitation among interacting groups: Evidence for the evaluation-apprehension hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6(1): 137–142.

Ferris, G. R., & Rowland, K. M. (1983). Social facilitation effects on behavioral and perceptual task performance measures: Implications for work behavior. Group & Organization Management, 8(4), 421–438.

Shaffer, E. S., & Prislin, R. (2011). Conversion vs tolerance: Minority-focused influence strategies can affect group loyalty. Group Processes Intergroup Relations, 14(5), 755–766.


Gastil, J. (1994). A meta-analytic review of the productivity and satisfaction of democratic and autocratic leadership. Small Group Research, 25(3), 384–410.

Hogg, M. A., Martin, R. Epitropaki, O., Mankad, A., Svensson, A., & Weedon, K. (2005). Effective leadership in salient groups: Revisiting leader-member exchange theory from the perspective of the social identity theory of leadership. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(7), 991–1004.

Johnson, N. J., & Klee, T. (2007). Passive-aggressive behavior and leadership styles in organizations. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(2), 130–142.

van Breukelen, W., Schyns, B., & Le Blanc, P. (2006). Leader-member exchange theory and research: Accomplishments and future challenges. Leadership, 2(3), 295–316.