Learning Objectives

By the end of Chapter 1, you should be able to:

  • Conceptualize counseling as an art and science;
  • Differentiate counseling from psychotherapy;
  • Differentiate formal from informal helping;
  • Provide an overview of the helping formula;
  • Identify characteristics of effective helpers;
  • Discuss the differences between professional helpers;
  • Conceptualize counseling from an historical perspective;
  • Describe emerging trends in counseling; and
  • Address diversity issues in counseling.