Learning Objectives

By the end of Chapter 7, you should be able to describe:

  • Basic principles associated with the classic theories;
  • How behavior manifests itself in terms of the id, ego, and superego in terms of endopsychic conflicts;
  • The conscious-unconscious continuum;
  • The psychosexual stages of development and their role in personality development;
  • Defense mechanisms and give examples of defense mechanisms;
  • The role of transference and countertransference in psychotherapy;
  • Emerging trends in Freud’s theory such as brief models, interpersonal psychotherapy, and ego-analytic theory;
  • The role of social interest in mental health;
  • Behavior in terms of teleological movement;
  • The role of birth order and family constellation dynamics in personality development;
  • How acting “as if” and catching oneself can be used in counseling;
  • The life style analysis and how it can be used in counseling;
  • Archetypes (e.g., shadow) and the collective unconsciousness; and
  • How Jung conceptualized the overall aim of Analytic Psychotherapy.