Multiple Choice Questions

This chapter is about the learning process. It includes theories of learning, and the importance of learning theories to marketing activities. Learning is examined in its widest aspects, including learning through advertising and the type of learning that takes place during information searches. 

1. Ducking when a stone is thrown at you is an example of ______.

  1. species response tendencies
  2. maturation
  3. learning

Answer: A

The response is automatic, and does not depend on previous experience.

2. In Pavlov’s experiments, the meat powder acted as ______.

  1. an unconditioned response.
  2. an unconditioned stimulus.
  3. a conditioned stimulus.

Answer: B

The meat powder was not part of the conditioning – the dogs would respond to it without being conditioned to do so.

3. In Pavlov’s experiment, the bell acted as ______.

  1. an unconditioned response.
  2. an unconditioned stimulus.
  3. a conditioned stimulus.

Answer: C

The stimulus is part of the conditioning.

4. Which works best in advertising?

  1. forward conditioning
  2. backward conditioning
  3. simultaneous conditioning

Answer: A

Research shows that forward conditioning is most effective.

5. What is the correct term for a situation where a stimulus no longer evokes the conditioned response?

  1. generalisation
  2. discrimination
  3. extinction

Answer: C

The process of forgetting a conditioned reflex.

6. Learning by trial and error is called ______.

  1. classical conditioning
  2. operant conditioning
  3. positive reinforcement

Answer: B

Classical conditioning is the Pavlovian route; positive reinforcement is the mechanism by which operant conditioning works.

7. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of cognitive learning?

  1. cognitive effort
  2. synthesis
  3. analysis

Answer: B

Synthesis is a component of perception.

8. In which of the following circumstances is learning most susceptible to management?

  1. When the learner is highly motivated, and unfamiliar with the domain, and the subject is ambiguous.
  2. When the learner is not highly motivated, the domain is familiar, and the subject is ambiguous.
  3. When the subject is ambiguous, the learner is motivated, but he or she is familiar with the domain.

Answer: A

These are circumstances where learning needs to be managed because the learner is not familiar with the complex subject.

9. A test in which people are shown a list of brands and asked which they remember is called ______.

  1. a recall test
  2. a recognition test
  3. a brand memory test

Answer: B

People are being asked if they recognise a brand from a list.

10. A connection someone makes between a brand and other concepts is called ______.

  1. a brand link
  2. a brand connection
  3. a brand association

Answer: C

The others are invented terms.

Web exercise


Check your own learning style. How useful is this to you? What differences are there between the two sites in terms of determining your learning style? How accurate do you think this type of testing is likely to be?