Test you understanding of key chapter concepts by working through this quiz. You can check your answer by clicking on the arrow to the right or on what you think the correct answer is. The correct answer will then be revealed to you for that question.
1. Which of the following are part of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for a specific phobia?
- EITHER a marked fear of a specific object or situation OR marked avoidance of such objects or situations
- EITHER a marked fear of a specific object or situation OR unrealistic and persistent worry about the feared object or situation
- BOTH a marked fear of a specific object or situation AND marked avoidance of such objects or situations
- BOTH a marked fear of a specific object or situation AND unrealistic and persistent worry about the feared object or situation
a. EITHER a marked fear of a specific object or situation OR marked avoidance of such objects or situations
2. Prevalence of phobias in children often appears lower than that for adults. Which of the following are likely explanations for this?
- Fears are a normal part of growing up so clinicians may be reluctant to assign diagnoses
- Children may be more reluctant to own up to their phobias
- Children have fewer specific phobias than adults
- Both A and B
d. Both A and B
3. Why is avoiding feared stimuli problematic?
- We deny ourselves the chance of finding out that the object/situation won’t really hurt us, and that the nasty sensations we feel in our body are perfectly safe
- The relief felt from avoidance means we are likely to avoid again, causing a vicious cycle of fear and avoidance
- Both of A and B
- There is no problem with avoiding feared stimuli
c. Both of A and B
4. Which of the following can simple learning theory not explain?
- Why not everyone who experiences a traumatic event goes on to develop a phobia
- Why people avoid feared stimuli
- How any stimulus could become fear-evoking
- None of the above
a. Why not everyone who experiences a traumatic event goes on to develop a phobia
5. Which of the following is not one of Rachman’s pathways to fear acquisition?
- Direct experience
- Vicarious learning
- Transmission of information
- Outcome expectancies
d. Outcome expectancies
6. Which theory would best explain fear acquisition in the following scenario: At the age of 10, X found a snake in her garden. Although calm at the time (she did not have a traumatic experience), when she told her parents about what had happened they expressed extreme concern. From then, she was extremely frightened of snakes and exhibited severe phobic behaviour.
- Preparedness Theory
- The Learning Model of Fear
- Rachman’s indirect pathways of fear acquisition
- Mowrer’s Two Factor Theory
c. Rachman’s indirect pathways of fear acquisition
7. What do the learning and preparedness models not take into account in explaining fear acquisition?
- The person’s expectancies
- The person’s thoughts
- The person’s experiences
d. The person’s predispositions
b. The person’s thoughts
8. People with phobias show attentional biases when presented with material related to their fear. This means that:
- Their attention is drawn towards material related to their fear
- They sometimes avoid attending to material related to their fear
- They take longer to process threat-relevant words or stimuli than non-threatening words
- All of the above
d. All of the above
9. In the cognitive approach to phobias, what comes first, the phobia, or the thought?
- Phobias arise from fearful thoughts
- Fearful thoughts arise as a result of the phobia
- Thoughts are not important in phobias
- There isn’t enough evidence to determine the direction of effect*
d. There isn’t enough evidence to determine the direction of effect*
10. How are specific phobias typically addressed in modern (cognitive behavioural) therapy?
- Therapy addresses learnt behavioural responses
- Therapy addresses cognitive biases
- Therapy addresses both learnt behavioural responses and cognitive biases associated with the fear
d. Therapy addresses early childhood experiences
c. Therapy addresses both learnt behavioural responses and cognitive biases associated with the fear