An Introduction to Praxis

Many state departments of public education in the United States now require teacher candidates to pass Praxis tests published by Educational Testing Service (ETS) prior to receiving a teaching license(s).  The Praxis tests include four Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) tests, for teachers seeking licensure in early childhood; and grades K-6, 5-9, or 7-12.  Effective Instructional Strategies:  From Theory to Practice, 4th edition, addresses topics included in the four PLT tests. 

            PLT:  Early Childhood:


            PLT:  Grades K-6:


            PLT:  Grades 5-9:


            PLT:  Grades 7-12:


The ETS website ( and contains many resources that teacher candidates may use in preparation for the Praxis examinations.  The websites contain an overview of the design and contents of each of the ETS tests.  The Test at a Glance (TAAG) (*%2Fpraxis%2F*&qt=taag&site-search-form-go=Go) site provides a number of related links to study materials and to information relative to the different test.

Praxis Series testing requirements for each of the state educational agencies can be found at:

The Praxis Series:  Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers tests involve analysis of a variety of classroom-based case studies.  Therefore, the two reflections on teacher practice presented in each chapter of Effective Instructional Strategies:  From Theory to Practice, 4th edition, may be especially helpful in preparing for these tests.  Additional, the PRAXIS Connection for each textbook chapter will be invaluable in preparing for the tests.  The textbook  reflection on teacher practice, reflect and apply, extension activities, the classroom decision cases, and the activities on this website may also assist you in thinking through actual classroom practice.