Chapter 2: Tourism in its Historial Context
Question 1: Explain how transport technology influenced demand for travel over time.
Answer Guide: Travel increased as technological advances in transport increased the speed (first by the use of horses, then steam railways, then the motor car, then aircraft). In many cases, technology also made journeys more comfortable. Furthermore, mass production of cars reduced the price (and consequently increased private ownership), making travel more affordable and convenient for more people. Similarly enhanced aircraft technology improved efficiencies and allowed the development of low-cost carriers, further expanding demand for travel over time.
Question 2: Discuss the appeal of traditional guidebooks vis-à-vis more recent means of acquiring travel information.
Answer Guide: Acquiring information using the Internet or through a wide variety of travel-related apps means that up-to-date information can be accessed. Apps designed to guide the traveller can include maps, audio (or video) walking tours (including those that use GPS location information) and review sites, such as trip advisor. These can provide real-time information, updated frequently to reflect changes in situation. This provides a real advantage over traditional guidebooks, which are often published many months after being written.
Traditional guidebooks do offer a reading experience which may be more convenient – in that the book can be perused without requiring an Internet connection (or battery power) and can form part of a library (it is not unusual for frequent travellers to have a collection of lonely planet books as a reminder of their past trips). Printed books can be annotated by the reader to add their own thoughts and views on places visited – although this is now also true of many modern sources of information, as travellers add their own reviews and comments on attractions, hotels, restaurants, etc.
Question 3: Identify key enabling factors that encouraged the growth of mass tourism in the 20th century.
Answer Guide: Travel was possible at faster speeds (so distance travelled took less time and return could be quicker, or more distant travel for a day trip or vacation became possible). Organizing of group travel (and packaging this) started, with discounted rates possible. The introduction of paid holidays also made travel possible for more people. Supporting facilities (convenient and quality hotels) were developed.