SAGE Journal Articles
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Article 1: Asscher, J.J., Wissink, I. B., Deković, M., Prinzie, P. & Stams, G. J. (2014). Delinquent Behavior, Poor Relationship Quality with Parents, and Involvement with Deviant Peers in Delinquent and Nondelinquent Adolescents: Different Processes, Informant Bias, or Both? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 2014, Vol. 58(9) 1001–1019.
The aim of this study was to determine whether two risk factors that are frequently selected as targets for prevention and intervention purposes—involvement with deviant peers and parent–adolescent relationship quality—are associated with delinquent behavior in the same way in a juvenile general population sample (n =88) as in a juvenile offender sample (n = 85). Information on delinquency and the quality of parent–adolescent relationship was obtained from adolescents and parents. The results of path analyses showed that relations between poor parent–adolescent relationship quality, involvement with deviant peers, and delinquency depended on whose point of view is used (adolescent or parent) and which sample is used (general population or delinquent sample). These findings indicate that caution is warranted when theories based on research with community samples are used for development of intervention programs for juvenile delinquents.
Using both delinquent and non-delinquent youth and their parents it provides data concerning the risk factors associated with delinquent behavior. The study was conducted in the Netherlands, the sample consists of both Dutch and non-Dutch respondents. The authors note that because most research examines the general population to develop theories on delinquency the data can yield bias results because the risk factors identified are likely to be risk factors for first offenders and not risk factors for those delinquents who are repeat offenders from high risk families or neighborhoods.
Questions to Consider:
- The study was conducted in the Netherlands. Do you think that it is significant that the study sample consisted of both Dutch and non-Dutch respondents? Explain.
- Parents, more often than the youth, noted that deviant peers had an impact on delinquency. What factors might contribute to these differing points of view?
- Explain the importance of studying both delinquent and non-delinquent youth to determine the risk factors for deviant behavior.
Emile Durkheim recognized many years ago that all groups--even a "society of saints"--produce deviants. Group members must then come to terms with how to respond to and control those who violate the group's moral order. The Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meeting offers an interesting context to explore this process. AA members, by their own admission, are far from being "saints," some admitting to adultery, theft, and assault during their active alcoholism. In this article, the author describes the moral order of AA that functions to prevent and create deviant behavior, focusing on AA members' use of criticism as both a method of social control and a violation of AA's normative system. This seeming contradiction is explained by showing that criticism is a social control strategy available primarily to high-status members, used primarily against lower-status members.
This essay discusses social control of behavior in an Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meeting. The author states that he is focused on AA because it is a group that lacks an institutionalized authority structure and the results can be generalized to other social groups. The author notes that because AA does not support criticism as a model behavior for its members it would therefore be considered “deviant” and worth studying. Criticism in AA is examined as both deviance and social control.
Questions to Consider:
- Why is criticism in AA meetings seen as a deviant behavior?
- How does an AA member’s status impact the use of criticism in meetings?
- Identify other situations (e.g. in the media, personal experience, etc) where deviant behavior is used as a form of social control.
Perceived organizational ethical values refer to employees’ beliefs concerning what practices are acceptable or appropriate in their organization (Trevino, 1990). Previous work suggests that these perceptions can be a significant factor in employee behavior, with normative influence often assumed to be the underlying mechanism (Peterson, 2002). The current article incorporates another theoretical lens, namely social exchange theory (Blau, 1964), and, in particular, negative reciprocity, to suggest that mistreatment at work — in the form of abusive supervision and lack of organizational support — may undermine the normative influence of perceived ethical values. The results indicate a negative association between perceived organizational ethical values and organizational deviance. This generally negative association was countered by abusive supervision and strengthened by organizational support, with both moderators suggesting an overt effect of negative reciprocity on employee behavior, especially when the trustee’s (i.e. the supervisor’s or employer’s) actions seem to be misaligned with perceived organizational ethical values.
This article uses social exchange theory to explain that when employees feel that they do not have organizational and/or supervisory support they feel that they can engage in behaviors that are considered workplace deviance. At the end of the article the author notes various organizational deviance items which include coming to work late and leaving early, taking excessive breaks, etc. The information in this article supports that deviance is not just an issue in the “streets”, but also an issue in the “suites”.
Questions to Consider:
- What is the potential impact of workplace deviance on the organization?
- This article noted that the supervisor has a direct impact on an employee’s behavior. What are some ways that supervisors can impede deviant behavior?
- This article supports that the influence of others contributes to engaging in deviant behavior. Identify other factors that may influence an employee to engage or refrain from deviant behavior.