SAGE Journal Articles
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Social control theory asserts that strong social bonds inhibit delinquency, whereas weak bonds offer little resistance to offending. In the development of this theoretical perspective, new research suggests that the type and magnitude of social bonds have differing effects on male and female delinquency. This study adds to our understanding of how social control factors of parental attachment, involvement in diverse prosocial activities, belief in traditional norms, and school climate affect both young men's and young women's reports of serious delinquency and risky behavior in a sample of high school youth. Whereas previous research has generally either controlled for the effect of gender statistically or studied all-male samples, this article uses separate models to examine the independent effects of social bonds on male and female delinquency. The findings support the development of gender-specific analyses to understand how social control affects male and female pathways into delinquency.
This article explores the impact that social bonds have on delinquency. The authors use males and females’ in their model to determine the statistical significance of prosocial activities. The insight gained from this research can be applied to effectively and appropriately divert youth from the path of delinquency.
Questions to Consider:
- How does gender impact the pathway to delinquency?
- In this study attachment to parents did not exert a strong effect on either serious delinquency or risky (deviant) behavior. What so the authors submit as explanations for these findings?
- Based upon this article, detail where and how we should invest our tax dollars to divert youth from delinquency.
Since Cesare Lombroso’s days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as “habitual offenders,” “professional criminals,” “career criminals,” and “serial offenders.” The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.
This article defines and then compares professional and non-professional criminals. Additionally, it explores the different phases of the criminal career.
Questions to Consider:
- Are serial offenders always career criminals?
- Discuss the difference between career criminal and criminal career.
- Explain the three types of serial criminals. According to the author, which one is the most dangerous?
Research on the role of narrative and identity in desistance from crime tends to rely on interview methods. This article argues research and theory on desistance and interventions for addressing offending would be enriched by the qualitative analysis of interactions between criminal justice practitioners and service users. This approach is illustrated by applying discourse analysis and conversation analysis to video recordings of a groupwork programme for addressing offending behaviour. The analysis shows that: (1) service users may exhibit ambivalence to pro-social identities; (2) practitioners may orient to this resistance and encourage positive change; (3) other group members’ change narratives constitute resources to support desistance. This illustrates how an interactional approach to desistance can enhance understandings of practice and change processes.
The researcher focuses on bridging the gap between desistance research and research on effective interventions. This article shows that the interview process and group work are critical in a probationer moving from participation in criminal behavior to the changed identity of a noncriminal.
Questions to Consider:
- Define desistance.
- What is the relationship between the skills used by probation officers and the re-offending rates of probationers?
- Discuss the difference between primary and secondary desistance.