SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 1: Annison, J. (2009). Portrayals of women probation officers and women offenders. Probation Journal, 56, 435–460. DOI:10.1177/0264550509346192

Abstract: The electronic back catalogue of the Probation Journal (1929—present) has recently become available via the publisher’s website ( This article provides a descriptive and analytical critique of portrayals of women probation officers and women offenders by drawing from the range of editions of the Probation Journal.

Journal Article 2: Hassell, K. D., & Brandl, S. G. (2009). An examination of the workplace experiences of police patrol officers: The role of race, sex, and sexual orientation. Police Quarterly, 12, 408–430. DOI:10.1177/1098611109348473

Abstract: Reform efforts in many police departments have diversified the workforce, especially with regard to race, sex, and sexual orientation. Research, however, has demonstrated that the assimilation of these officers has not been problem-free. Using data collected from a large, municipal police department, this article examines the workplace experiences of patrol officers and a potential consequence of those experiences: stress. We find that being female and being a racial/ethnic minority brings with it substantially different experiences on the job compared to male and White officers. Our findings also confirm previous research that workplace climate has an effect on workplace stress.

Journal Article 3: Ireland, C., & Berg, B. (2008). Women in parole: Respect and rapport. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52, 474–491. DOI:10.1177/0306624X07307782

Abstract: Although the number of females in law enforcement has increased in recent years, research suggests that the uniquely gendered contributions of females are minimized in favor of traditional modes of law enforcement, emphasizing physical presence, authoritative commands, and demonstrative control. This research examines women in parole, using in-depth interviews with a small convenience sample of female parole agents in California. Participants discussed their experiences as parole agents from the perspective of women in a predominantly male occupation. Overwhelmingly, they emphasized traditionally associated female traits of intuition, verbal communication, and relationships, over physical tactics. Participants emphasized the importance of building respect and rapport with parolees in multiple contexts, including in the parolees' homes, with the families of parolees, and at parolees' places of employment. Participants suggested that this approach ensures their personal safety and enhances parolee compliance, especially when considering their subjective account of experiences by male parole agents.