SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 1: Baker, T., Metcalfe, C. F., & Jennings, W. G. (2013). What are the odds?: Predicting specialization in offending over the life courseCriminal Justice & Behavior. DOI:0093854812474262

Abstract: A number of methodological techniques and theoretical propositions have been used in the extant literature on specialization/versatility. These various methodologies and theories have created an ongoing debate that has revealed several areas of focus that need to be addressed. The current study applies Moffitt’s (1993) taxonomy and uses a series of random effects logistic regression models to estimate the impact of a violent, property, drug, or other prior offense on the commission of a subsequent offense across different types of criminal careers. Specifically, we attempt to determine the odds a prior offense has on predicting a subsequent offense among four offender trajectories, controlling for various aspects of the criminal career and demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that the odds of committing any offense type over the life course are greater if the prior offense was of the same type. This relationship remains consistent across offender trajectories.

Journal Article 2: Belknap, J., & Holsinger, K. (2006). The gendered nature of risk factors for delinquencyFeminist Criminology, 1, 48–71.

Abstract: Traditional delinquency theories typically exclude girls and examine economic marginalization as the primary risk factor for boys. More recent mainstream theories expand the childhood strains associated with delinquency but fail to account for the link between childhood abuses and subsequent offending reported in the feminist pathways studies of girls and women. In addition, policies since the 1990s request the development of “gender-specific services” for delinquent girls without examining how the risks are gendered. This study of 444 incarcerated youths’ self-reports indicates the contribution of feminist pathways to better understand the risks associated with and improve the responses to girls’ and boys’ delinquency by examining demographic, abuse, family, school and peer, and self-esteem variables.

Journal Article 3: Chen, X. (2009). The link between juvenile offending and victimization: The influence of risky lifestyles, social bonding, and individual characteristicsYouth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 7, 119–135.

Abstract: Although previous studies have shown a consistent association between juvenile offending and violent victimization, the mechanism that leads to this association remains unclear. The association between juvenile offending and victimization could be due to consequences of delinquent behavior and offenders' risky activities, social bonding to conventional institutions, or persistent individual traits. Based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current article uses fixed effects regression models to assess the net effect of offending on victimization while controlling for adolescents' social bonding to parents/schools and for persistent individual characteristics. There is clear evidence that delinquent behavior causes violent victimization. The offending--victimization linkage, however, appears to be victimization specific, with persistent individual characteristics partially explaining this linkage for less serious victimization but not for severe violent victimization.