SAGE Journal Articles
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Journal Article 1: Blackwell, B. S., Holleran, D., & Finn, M. A. (2008). The impact of the pennsylvania sentencing guidelines on sex differences in sentencing. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24, 399–418. DOI:10.1177/1043986208319453
Abstract: Although it has been argued that sentencing guidelines reduce the favorable treatment afforded female offenders, only one study has directly theoretically assessed the impact of guidelines on sentencing outcomes for men versus women. This study examines the influence of guidelines on the outcomes of male and female defendants sentenced in Pennsylvania by examining three periods, including one period during which guidelines were suspended. Results indicate that female, compared to male, offenders were less likely to be incarcerated in jail or prison and received shorter sentences in all periods; differences were not greatest when guidelines were suspended. Findings suggest that Pennsylvania's structured sentencing model has not affected the sex--sentencing relationship in that state.
Journal Article 2: Freiburger, T. L., & Hilinski, C. M. (2009). An examination of the interaction of race and gender on sentencing decisions using a trichotomous dependent variable. Crime & Delinquency, 59, 59–86. DOI:10.1177/0011128708330178
Abstract: This study examined how race, gender, and age interact to affect defendants’ sentences using a trichotomized dependent variable. The findings indicate that the racial and gender disparity found in sentencing decisions was largely due to Black men’s increased likelihood of receiving jail as opposed to probation. The results also show that being young resulted in increased odds of receiving probation over jail for White men and for women but resulted in decreased odds for Black men. Separate analysis of incarceration terms to jail and prison further reveal that legal factors had a greater impact on prison than on jail sentence length. Overall, the results strongly support the argument that sentencing research needs to consider sentences to jail and prison separately.
Journal Article 3: Jones, S. (2008). Partners in crime: A study of the relationship between female offenders and their co-defendants. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 8, 147–164. DOI:10.1177/1748895808088992
Abstract: Criminologists have paid relatively little attention to the relationships between male and female co-offenders. Most of the published research has been published in the USA and relates to the street-level drugs economy. In this project, 50 sentenced adult women were interviewed in an English prison about their criminal involvement with co-defendants. The picture that emerged revealed the widespread use of devices by males ranging from various forms of manipulation to direct physical coercion in order to ensure female compliance with their criminal activities. These findings stand in contrast to statements in some of the more recent literature, which seek to emphasize women's agency in their offending behaviour. The implications of these findings for the criminal liability and sentencing of women are discussed.