SAGE Journal Articles
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Ellis, M. V., Berger, L., Hanus, A. E., Ayala, E. E., Swords, B. A., & Siembor, M. (2014). Inadequate and Harmful Clinical Supervision Testing a Revised Framework and Assessing Occurrence. The Counseling Psychologist, 42(4), 434-472.
Two studies were conducted to revise and empirically test Ellis’s framework for inadequate and harmful supervision, and to determine the occurrence of inadequate and harmful clinical supervision from the supervisees’ perspective. For Study 1, we delineated 10 criteria for minimally adequate clinical supervision and defined inadequate and harmful supervision by differentiating self-identified and de facto supervision for each. Ratings from 34 supervision experts were used to generate a taxonomy of 16 de facto inadequate and 21 de facto harmful supervision descriptors. Because harmful supervision was distinct from, yet subsumed by, inadequate supervision, we revised the taxonomy and definitions accordingly. In Study 2, the occurrence of inadequate and harmful supervision was assessed for 363 supervisees; 93.0% were currently receiving inadequate supervision and 35.3% were currently receiving harmful supervision. Over half of the supervisees had received harmful clinical supervision at some point. Implications for research, training, and practice are discussed.
Questions to Consider:
- According to these authors, what distinguishes inadequate supervision from harmful supervision?
- As per Figure 1 criteria on page 439, do you believe that your site supervision meets the criteria for minimally adequate clinical supervision? If it does not, with whom can you discuss this discrepancy?
- In examining clinical supervision, what is the difference between adequate and effective supervision or inadequate and ineffective supervision? Which is the difference between necessary and sufficient conditions in supervision?
Burkard, A. W., Knox, S., Clarke, R. D., Phelps, D. L., & Inman, A. G. (2014). Supervisors’ Experiences of Providing Difficult Feedback in Cross-Ethnic/Racial Supervision. The Counseling Psychologist, 42(3), 314-344.
Seventeen clinical supervisors were interviewed regarding their experience of providing difficult feedback in cross-ethnic/racial supervision, and their responses were analyzed using consensual qualitative research (CQR). European American supervisors described supervisees of color who had difficulty in their clinical work with culturally different clients. These supervisors then shared with supervisees their concern that supervisees’ interpersonal skills may negatively affect their clinical and/or supervision work. Supervisors of color described European American supervisees who exhibited insensitivity toward clients of color in session or during supervision. These supervisors shared their concern that supervisees’ lack of cultural sensitivity may negatively affect their clinical work. These contrasting feedback experiences had a profound effect on supervisory relationships and the processes within supervision.
Questions to Consider:
- What different concerns were expressed by European American supervisors who described supervisees of color and the supervisors of color who described European American supervisees?
- What effects did the contrasting feedback experiences have on supervisory relationships and the processes within supervision?
- Are you aware of any cultural differences between you and your field placement supervisor which may be impacting you’re your supervisory relationship and processes?
Since clinical supervision has become recognized as a distinct professional practice, competency based supervision has gained considerable traction internationally. Competency-based supervision enhances accountability and is compatible with evidence-based approaches. Competency-based supervision is defined by supervisor and supervisee collaboratively and explicitly identifying the knowledge, skills and attitudes comprising each clinical competency, determining specific learning strategies, and monitoring and evaluating the development of those. Recommendations for supervision practice are described based on the growing evidence base for practice and responsive to emerging ethical and legal issues.
Questions to Consider:
- Compare and contrast competency-based supervision and evidence-based approaches.
- This author explains that since supervision is a distinct professional practice, it requires specific training, however, there is still a significant lag in recognition of this internationally such that training in clinical supervision is not widely offered in all graduate training programs. Using this article as a talking point, ask your supervisor(s) to share his/her/their graduate training in supervision.
- Explain the supervision of supervision process. Is/are your supervisor(s) currently under supervision? Do you know your supervisor’s supervisor and if so are you comfortable with these layers of supervision?
- What are the components of the supervision process? How were you prepared to know your roles and functions in the supervisory relationship? Do you have a detailed supervisory contract with your supervisor(s)?