SAGE Journal Articles
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Crisis intervention is a role that fits exceedingly well with counseling psychologists’ interests and skills. This article provides an overview of a new crisis intervention model, the Integrated Problem-Solving Model (IPSM), and demonstrates its application to a specific crisis, sexual assault. It is hoped that this article will encourage counseling psychologists to become more involved in crisis intervention itself as well as in research and training in this important area.
Questions to Consider:
- Compare and contrast the definition of crisis presented in this article and that shared by the authors of your textbook. What is your understanding of the process of growth as outcome of a crisis situation?
- List the 10 stages of the Integrated Problem-Solving Model (IPSM) detailed in this article. How do these stages parallel (or diverge from) the Counselor Trainee Crisis Intervention plan you have developed with your supervisor?
- The authors demonstrate this model using a sexual assault case scenario. How might the steps (particularly 6 and 7) require additional sensitivity and also present additional challenges in an educational setting?
Jimerson, S. R., Brock, S. E., & Pletcher, S. W. (2005). An Integrated Model of School Crisis Preparedness and Intervention A Shared Foundation to Facilitate International Crisis Intervention. School Psychology International, 26(3), 275-296.
In an effort to promote the social and cognitive competence of youth, school psychologists must be prepared to address a multitude of contextual factors and life events that impact children’s performance and adjustment in school and subsequent developmental trajectories. The domain of crisis preparedness and intervention has received increased attention during the past decade (as evidenced by a growing school crisis intervention literature) and is currently a training standard for school psychologists in some parts of the world. Crisis situations may emerge following natural disasters such as floods, fires, tornadoes or earthquakes and also from human generated situations such as bombings and school shootings. Each of these events is likely to affect the children and families in schools and communities by presenting them with problems that will be challenging to cope with. There are a variety of crisis preparedness and intervention models and strategies available to address crisis situations. Without a shared foundation for crisis intervention, responding to crisis situations may be further complicated, especially in situations where international colleagues are collaborating. Therefore, a shared foundation that includes both preparedness and intervention while emphasizing both developmental and school considerations will be invaluable in our efforts to facilitate collaboration among diverse colleagues across multiple contexts. The purpose of this article is to incorporate several models and frameworks in order to provide a shared foundation for school psychologists and other educational and mental health professionals regarding crisis preparedness and intervention. To establish a shared foundation for international crisis collaboration, it is also necessary to review the original works discussed in this brief overview and participate in relevant workshops.
Questions to Consider:
- Compare and contrast the guidelines in this article with those in the previous article. How does a “crisis event” plan differ from an “individual in crisis” plan? In what ways are they alike?
- How can a shared framework assist professionals in related fields to collaborate effectively?
- In discussing crisis management with your supervisor, have the two of you discussed the differences between crisis events and the emergency situation management plans of your school, institution or agency, and individuals in crisis plans as detailed in the previous article? Where might these plans overlap? And where might they contradict each other?
- Using Figure 1 on page 279 as a starting point, re-label these stages using the terminology in another model in this article, the model in the previous article and Chapter 8 of your text. Do you see similar themes expressed using different vocabulary? How might the helping professions be served by adhering to common vocabulary and models that integrate varying points of professional responsibility?
Development of information technology has created new opportunities and challenges in suicide prevention, research, and clinical practice. This article presents an overview of the wide range of telecommunication-based suicide prevention approaches. Interventions using the Internet, telephone, and videoconferencing are discussed, including crisis intervention, referral, and support, suicide risk assessment, psychotherapy for individuals at risk, and online-based suicide prevention training and education. Research regarding effectiveness of telecommunication-based suicide prevention in various demographic and clinical populations is reviewed, as well as concerns regarding this type of intervention. Future areas of research and development in the use of telecommunication media in prevention of suicide are discussed.
Questions to Consider:
- Have you discussed with your site supervisor a protocol of crisis intervention/suicide prevention to be followed if you client is not physically present? Even if your site does not typically offer technology based appointments, what situations might arise where you are alerted to a problem via an email, text, or social media post?
- In addition to reading this article, review Section H “Distance Counseling,
- Technology, and Social Media” of the 2014 American Counseling Association Code of Ethics. What ethical decision making challenges might you anticipate in developing remote intervention and prevention plans?
- After exploring some of the examples in this article and cited in the chart on page 239, do you see a value in technology based options? What value? At what cost? Create your personal pro/con list for using technology in counseling in general…does this list change when we add the words “crisis” and suicide” to the conversation?