These activities include brainstorming activities, further reading, weblinks to external sites, and enable you to examine and relect upon the methods of both real-world studies and the methods chosen by fictional nursing and midwifery students introduced in chapter one.
Activity 11.1: Examples of Post-test RCTs
For examples of RCTs using the post-test only design, see:
Ceber, E. Turk, M. and Ciceklioglu, M. (2010) The effects of an educational program on knowledge of breast cancer, early detection practices and health beliefs of nurses and midwives, Journal of Clinical Nursing 19(15–16): 2363–2371.
Janssen, P.A. and Desmarais, S.L. (2013) Women’s experience with early labour management at home vs. in hospital: A randomised controlled trial, Midwifery 29(3): 190–194.
Activity 11.2: Examples of Pre-test, Post-test RCTs
For examples of RCTs using the pre-test, post-test design, see:
Baxter, P. and Norman, G. (2011) Self-assessment or self-deception? A lack of association between nursing students’ self-assessment and performance, Journal of Advanced Nursing 67(11): 2406–2413.
Turnbull, D. Adelson, P. Oster, C. Coffey, J. Coomblas, J. Bryce, R. and Wilkinson, C. (2013) The impact of outpatient priming for induction of labour on midwives’ work demand, work autonomy and satisfaction, Women and Birth 26(3): 207–212.
Activity 11.3: Examples of Solomon Four RCTs
For examples of RCTs using the Solomon Four design, see:
Alexandropoulou, M. (2013) Evaluating a Health Educational First Aid Program for Special Education School Personnel: a Cluster Randomised Trial, International Journal of Caring Sciences 6(1): 115–126.
Zang, Y. Zhao, Y. Yang, Q. Pan, Y. and Liu, T. (2011) A randomised trial on pubertal development and health in China, Journal of Clinical Nursing 20(21–22): 3081–3091.
Activity 11.4: Examples of Within-Participants RCTs
For examples of an RCT using the within-participants design, see:
Liaw, J-J. Yang, L. Wang, K-W.K. Chen, C-M. Chang, Y-C. and Yin, T. (2012) Non-nutritive sucking and facilitated tucking relieve preterm infant pain during heel-stick procedures: A prospective, randomised controlled crossover trial, International Journal of Nursing Studies 49(3): 300–309.
Snow, A.L Hovanec, L. and Brandt, J. (2004) A controlled trial of aromatherapy for agitation in nursing home patients with dementia, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 107(3): 431–437.
Activity 11.5: Examples of Matched-Pairs RCTs
For examples of RCTs using the matched-pairs design, see:
Goelz, R. Meisner, C. Bevot, A. Hamprecht, K. Kraegeloh-Mann, I. and Poets, C.F. (2013) Long-term cognitive and neurological outcome of preterm infants with postnatally acquired CMV infection through breast milk, Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal and Neonatal Edition 98(5): F430–F433.
Scott, P.A. and Meurer, W.J. (2013) A multilevel intervention to increase community hospital use of alteplase for acute stroke (INSTINCT): a cluster randomised controlled trial, Lancet Neurology 12(2): 139–148.
Activity 11.6: Overview of RCT Designs
The following paper provides an overview regarding RCTs including discussion about other designs:
Bench, S. Day, T. and Metcalfe, A. (2013) Randomised controlled trials: an introduction for nurse researchers, Nurse Researcher 20(5): 38–44.
Activity 11.7: Examples of Cross-sectional Designs
For recent examples of surveys using the cross-sectional design, see:
Gerrish, K. Guillaume, L. Kirshbaum, M. McDonnell, A. Tod, A. and Nolan, M. (2011) Factors influencing the contribution of advanced practice nurses to promoting evidence-based practice among front-line nurses: findings from a cross-sectional survey, Journal of Advanced Nursing 67(5): 1079-1090.
Höglund, B. Lindgren, P. and Larsson, M. (2013) Midwives’ knowledge of, attitudes towards and experiences of caring for women with intellectual disability during pregnancy and childbirth: A cross-sectional study in Sweden, Midwifery 29(8): 950–955.
Activity 11.8: Examples of Large-scale Cohort Studies
For papers detailing large-scale cohort studies, see:
Connelly, R. and Platt, L. (2014) Cohort Profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), International Journal of Epidemiology 4(6): 1719–1725.
Syddall, H.E. Sayer, A.A. Dennison, E.M. Martin, H.J. Barker, D.J.P. Cooper, C. and the Hertfordshire Cohort Study Group (2005) Cohort Profile: The Hertfordshire Cohort Study, International Journal of Epidemiology 34(6): 1234–1242.
Activity 11.9: Examples of Longitudinal Designs
For recent examples of studies using longitudinal design, see:
Jerofke, T. Weiss, M. and Yakusheva, O. (2013) Patient perceptions of patient-empowering nurse behaviours, patient activation and functional health status in postsurgical patients with life-threatening long-term illnesses, Journal of Advanced Nursing 70(6): 1310–1322.
Chang, H-Y. Lai, Y-H. Jensen, M.P. Shun, S-C. Hsiao, F-H. Lee, C-N. and Yang, Y-L. (2013) Factors associated with low back pain changes during the third trimester of pregnancy, Journal of Advanced Nursing 70(5): 1054–1064.
Activity 11.10: Examples of Delphi Surveys
For recent examples of Delphi surveys, see:
Nicholls, L. Skirton, H. and Webb, C. (2011) Establishing perceptions of a good midwife: A Delphi survey, British Journal of Midwifery 19(4): 230–236.
Davis, L. Taylor, H. and Reyes, H. (2014) Lifelong learning in nursing: A Delphi survey, Nurse Education Today 34(3): 441–445.
Activity 11.11: Pros and Cons of Clinical Databases
For a comprehensive overview of the advantages and disadvantages of using clinical databases as a data source, see:
Loke, Y.K. (2014) Use of databases for clinical research, Archives of Disease in Childhood 99(6): 587–589.
Activity 11.12: Comparing Different RCT Designs
Jasmine and Charles from the class of 2016 are considering possible studies that they could undertake for their research dissertation module.
Jasmine wants to explore the effect of a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce perineal discomfort following episiotomy by comparing this with a conventional treatment. Jasmine has decided to use a between participants post-test only design.
Charles wants to explore the effect of a psychological intervention to enable teenage girls to manage their anorexia by comparing this with a conventional intervention. Charles has decided to use a within-participants design.
What are the strengths and limitations of their chosen designs?
What practical and logistical factors may have influenced their decisions?
Do you agree with their decisions?
Give a rationale for your point of view regarding these proposed studies.