These activities include brainstorming activities, further reading, weblinks to external sites, and enable you to examine and relect upon the methods of both real-world studies and the methods chosen by fictional nursing and midwifery students introduced in chapter one.
Activity 20.1: Transcribing Complex Interviews
Lalor, J.G. Begley, C.M. and Devane, D. (2006) Exploring painful experiences: impact of emotional narratives on members of a qualitative research team, Journal of Advanced Nursing 56(6): 607–616.
Lalor et al. (2006) provide a description of the difficulties that may occur when an external person transcribes interviews that are of a sensitive nature. In this study the transcription process had far-reaching and unanticipated consequences for the transcriber.
More detailed issues regarding the transcription of sensitive data are discussed in:
Wilkes, L. Cummings, J. and Haigh, C. (2015) Transcription saturation: knowing too much about sensitive health and social data, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(2): 295–303.
Activity 20.2: Coding Similar Feelings
What do you think about these codes? Do you think that the participant is using different words and phrases to describe the same feelings? Would you put them into the same code? If so, what name or label would you give it?
Activity 20.3: Practising Notetaking during Interviews
Select and listen to some of the interview excerpts on the following website:
As you are listening, make a note of the broad themes that become apparent to you.
Activity 20.4: Examples of Thematic Analysis
Read either or both of the following papers that used thematic analysis. As you do so, think about the way in which the data were analysed and the themes described.
Gergett, B. and Gillen, P. (2014) Early pregnancy loss: perceptions of healthcare professionals. Evidence Based Midwifery, 12(1): 29-34.
Walker, W.M. (2014) Emergency care staff experiences of lay presence during adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a phenomenological study, Emergency Medicine Journal 31(6): 453–458.
Activity 20.5: Examples of Interpretative Phenomenology Analysis
Read either or both of the following papers which used IPA. As you do so, think about the way in which the data were analysed and the themes described.
Aasa, A. Hovbäck, M. and Berterö, C.M. (2013) The importance of preoperative information for patient participation in colorectal surgery care, Journal of Clinical Nursing 22(11/12): 1604–1612.
Caroln-Olah, M. Kruger, G. Walter, R. and Mazzarino, M. (2014) Final year students' experiences of the Bachelor of Midwifery course, Midwifery 30(5): 519–525.
Activity 20.6: Practising Conversational Analysis
Watch a five-minute clip of a recording of a television programme or film that includes dialogue between two or more people. Consider how you would analyse this using conversational analysis. Try to note all of the conversational behaviours; how easy is this to do? You may need to play the clip a number of times before you feel you have captured all of the information.
Activity 20.7: Examples of Conversational Analysis
Read either or both of the following papers which use conversational analysis. As you do so, think about the way in which the data were analysed and the findings described.
Kindell, J. Sage, K. Keady, J. and Wilkinson, R. (2013) Adapting to conversation with semantic dementia: using enactment as a compensatory strategy in everyday social interaction, International Journal of Language Communication Disorders 48(5): 497–507.
Kitzinger, C. and Kitzinger, S. (2007) Birth trauma: talking with women and the value of conversation analysis, British Journal of Midwifery 15(5): 256–264.
Activity 20.8: Examples of Discourse Analysis
Read either or both of the following papers which use discourse analysis. As you do so, think about the way in which the data were analysed and the findings described.
Alexander, S.A. and Coveney, J. (2013) A critical discourse analysis of Canadian and Australian public health recommendations promoting physical activity to children, Health Sociology Review 22(4): 353–364.
Fenwick, J. Burns, E. Athena, S. Schmid, V. (2013) We only talk about breast feeding: A discourse analysis of infant feeding messages in antenatal group-based education, Midwifery 29(5): 425–433.
Activity 20.9: Examples of Qualitative Content Analysis
Read either or both of the following papers which use qualitative content analysis. As you do so, think about the way in which the data were analysed and the findings described.
Ireland, S. Belton, S. and Saggers, S. (2015) The logics of planned birthplace for remote Australian Aboriginal women in the northern territory: A discourse and content analysis of clinical practice manuals, Midwifery 31(10): 993–999.
Smith, K.C. Cukier, S. and Jernigan, D.H. (2014) Regulating alcohol advertising: Content analysis of the adequacy of Federal and self-regulation of magazine advertisements, 2008–2010, American Journal of Public Health 104(10): 1901–1911.
Activity 20.10: Choosing an Appropriate Qualitative Data Analysis Method
The class of 2016 have been considering the different ways in which qualitative data can be analysed. They have been asked to identify the most appropriate data analysis methods for the following studies:
- A phenomenological study exploring the lived experience of teenagers with chronic renal failure.
- A grounded theory study exploring doctor–patient (client) communication.
Which methods of qualitative data analysis would you suggest and why? Write a short paragraph justifying your suggestion.