SAGE Journal Articles

Bastell, W. R. (2000). Augmentation: Synergistic conditioning in taste-aversion learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(5), 164-168.

This study evaluates taste aversion in the context of classical conditioning. The author suggests that their results demonstrate a new phenomenon in classical conditioning, by showing that secondary cues are augmented when paired with a preconditioned gustatory cue.


  1. What is a preconditioned gustatory cue?
  2. Why is it important to note that the secondary cue is augmented when paired with the preconditioned gustatory cue?
  3. How do these findings influence our understanding of classical conditioning?

Hajcak, G. & Foti, D. (2008). Errors are aversive: Defensive motivation and the error related negativity. Psychological Science, 19(2), 103-108.

This is a research article evaluating the role of errors on learning and motivation from a biological perspective.


  1. What is error-related negativity?
  2. What is the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in cognitive and emotional processing?
  3. When is the defensive startle response strongest, in the context of this study?