SAGE Journal Articles

Lovibond, P. F. & Calaguiri, B. (2013). Facilitation of voluntary goal-directed action by reward cues. Psychological Science, 24(10), 2030-2037.

This article summarizes the author’s research focusing on the use of Pavlovian conditioning to increase goal-motivated behavior.


  1. How do reward-associated cues influence motivation?
  2. What do the authors mean by Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedure?
  3. Define stimulus control.

Olsson, A. & Phelps, E. A. (2004). Learned fear of “unseen” faces after Pavlovian, observational, and instructed fear. Psychological Science, 15(12), 822-828.

This research article examining differences between Pavlovian conditioning, observational learning and instructional learning of fear responses to shock.


  1. In what ways did the protocols differ between Pavlovian, observational and instructed groups?
  2. In what ways did the groups differ in their responses to learning?
  3. What is meant by masked or unmasked?

Urushihara, K., Stout, S. C., & Miller, R. R. (2004). The basic laws of conditioningdiffer for elemental cues and cues trained in compound. Psychological Science, 15(4), 268-271.

This research article evaluates the cue duration effect in the context of associative learning.


  1. What is the cue duration effect?
  2. What is a compound cue?
  3. What is an elemental cue?