SAGE Journal Articles

Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M. & Cuthbert, B. N. (1992). A motivational analysis of emotion: Reflex-cortex connections. Psychological Science, 3(1), 44-49.

This study evaluates the extent to which motivation is involved in reflex reactions to emotional stimuli.


  1. How does the psychobiological perspective define motivation?
  2. What is the reflex probe used in this study?
  3. How can an unconditioned stimulus become “a tool for probing the underlying motivational status of emotional expression?”

Williams, B. A. & McDevitt, M. A. (2002). Inhibition and superconditioning. Psychological Science, 13(5), 454-459.

This study focuses on the use of a CS and US in the presence of a conditioned inhibitor to demonstrate superconditioning.


  1. What is superconditioning?
  2. Outline the auto-shaping procedure.
  3. In what way, according to the authors, is superconditioning the opposite of blocking?