SAGE Journal Articles

Domjan, M., Blesbois, E., & Williams, J. (1998). The adaptive significance of sexual conditioning: Pavlovian control of sperm release. Psychological Science, 9(5), 411-415.

Pavlovian conditioning protocols were used to condition the release of sperm in male quail.


  1. What was the CS for the experimental group?
  2. What was the US for the experimental group?
  3. In what ways were the control and experimental groups different?

Öhman, A. & Mineka, S. (2003). The malicious serpent: Snakes as a prototypical stimulus for an evolved module of fear. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(6), 224-228.

This article summarizes the evolution of a fear of snakes in humans, and discusses the possibility of learning in developing this fear.


  1. What are the evolutionary mechanisms behind a fear of snakes in humans?
  2. What is the evolved fear module?
  3. Is it possible that a fear of snakes is not innate, but a result of conditioning in humans?