Reinforce chapter themes with free access to two journal articles for each chapter and further online readings. Select chapters will also include suggested weblinks.
Journal Article 13.1: O’Reilly, C., Bell, J. and Chen, T. (2010) ‘Pharmacists’ beliefs about treatments and outcomes of mental disorders: A mental health literacy survey’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 44: 1089–96.
Discussion Points: How is a quantitative survey defined in this context? Critically evaluate the paper.
Discussion Points: What were the main features of the quantitative survey in this study? Evaluate its strengths and weaknesses.
Description: The aim was to explore levels of physical activity (PA) and mental wellbeing in university employees, as well as barriers to and incentives for workplace PA. An electronic survey was distributed to all staff at one UK university. The survey consisted of a PA stages of change questionnaire, an international PA questionnaire (short-form), the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), questions on perceived barriers to and incentives for workplace PA, questions on methods of enhancing employee wellbeing and demographics. A self-selected sample participated in two focus groups to explore key themes arising from the survey. Descriptive statistics were reported for survey data; associations between PA and wellbeing were tested for using Kruskal-Wallis with post hoc Mann–Whitney. Descriptive, thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts. A total of 502 surveys were completed (34% response rate); 13 staff participated in focus groups. In all, 42% of the sample reported PA below the recommended guideline amount. Females were less active than males (p < 0.005). The mean WEMWBS was 49.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 48.3–49.9). Low PA levels were related to lower WEMWBS scores, with statistically significant differences in WEMWBS demonstrated between low and moderate PA (p = 0.05) and low and high PA (p = 0.001). Lack of time and perceived expense of facilities were common barriers to workplace PA. The main focus group finding was the impact of university culture on workplace PA and wellbeing. University staff demonstrate PA levels and a relationship between PA and wellbeing similar to the general population. Carefully designed strategies aimed at enhancing PA and wellbeing in university staff are required. The specific cultural and other barriers to workplace PA that exist in this setting should be considered. These results are being used to inform PA and wellbeing interventions whose effectiveness will be evaluated in future research.
Description: The relationship between social class and mental illness stigma has received little attention in recent years. At the same time, the concept of mental health literacy has become an increasingly popular way of framing knowledge and understanding of mental health issues. British Social Attitudes survey data present an opportunity to unpack the relationships between these concepts and social class, an important task given continuing mental health inequalities. Regression analyses were undertaken which centred on depression and schizophrenia vignettes, with an asthma vignette used for comparison. The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, education and income were used as indicators of class. A number of interesting findings emerged. Overall, class variables showed a stronger relationship with mental health literacy than stigma. The relationship was gendered such that women with higher levels of education, especially those with a degree, had the lowest levels of stigma and highest levels of mental health literacy. Interestingly, class showed more of an association with stigma for the asthma vignette than it did for both the depression and schizophrenia vignettes, suggesting that mental illness stigma needs to be contextualised alongside physical illness stigma. Education emerged as the key indicator of class, followed by the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, with income effects being marginal. These findings have implications for targeting health promotion campaigns and increasing service use in order to reduce mental health inequalities.