SAGE Journals

Reinforce chapter themes with free access to two journal articles for each chapter and further online readings. Select chapters will also include suggested weblinks.

Journal Article 26.1: Hemingway, A., Angell, C., Hartwell, H. and Heller, R. F. (2011) ‘An emerging model for publishing and using open educational resources in public health’, Perspectives in Public Health 131: 38–43.

Discussion Points: Write an outline plan for the key sections of the above paper. Discuss the utility of the approach.

Journal Article 26.2: Gardner, W. and Heck, K. (2009) ‘Ethical requirements in the instructions for authors in journals publishing randomized clinical trials’, Research Ethics Review 5: 131–137.

Discussion Points: What are the key ethical issues that authors face in writing up research? How might these be managed during the research process?

Journal Article 26.3: Maguire, L. K. and Clarke, M. (2014) ‘How much do you need: A randomised experiment of whether readers can understand the key messages from summaries of Cochrane reviews without reading the full review’, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 107(11): 444–49.

Description: We explored whether readers can understand key messages without having to read the full review, and if there were differences in understanding between various types of summary. A randomized experiment of review summaries which compared understanding of a key outcome. Participants: members of university staff (n = 36). Setting: universities on the island of Ireland. The Cochrane Review chosen examines the health impacts of the use of electric fans during heat waves. Participants were asked their expectation of the effect these would have on mortality. They were then randomly assigned a summary of the review (i.e. abstract, plain language summary, podcast or podcast transcription) and asked to spend a short time reading/listening to the summary. After this they were again asked about the effects of electric fans on mortality and to indicate if they would want to read the full Review. Main outcome measure: Correct identification of a key review outcome. Just over half (53%) of the participants identified its key message on mortality after engaging with their summary. The figures were 33% for the abstract group, 50% for both the plain language and transcript groups and 78% for the podcast group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant but suggest that the audio summary might improve knowledge transfer compared to written summaries. These findings should be explored further using a larger sample size and with other reviews.

Journal Article 26.4: Sandelowski, M. and Leeman, J. (2012) ‘Writing usable qualitative health research findings’, Qualitative Health Research 22(10): 1404–13.

Description: Scholars in diverse health-related disciplines and specialty fields of practice routinely promote qualitative research as an essential component of intervention and implementation programs of research and of a comprehensive evidence base for practice. Remarkably little attention, however, has been paid to the most important element of qualitative studies—the findings in reports of those studies—and specifically to enhancing the accessibility and utilization value of these findings for diverse audiences of users. The findings in reports of qualitative health research are too often difficult to understand and even to find owing to the way they are presented. A basic strategy for enhancing the presentation of these findings is to translate them into thematic statements, which can then in turn be translated into the language of intervention and implementation. Writers of qualitative health research reports might consider these strategies better to showcase the significance and actionability of findings to a wider audience.

Journal Article 26.5: Simpson, R., Simpson, S., Wood, K., Mercer, S. W. and Mair, F. S. (2018) ‘Using normalisation process theory to understand barriers and facilitators to implementing mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with multiple sclerosis’, Chronic Illness 0(0): 1–13.

Description: To study barriers and facilitators to implementation of mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with multiple sclerosis. Qualitative interviews were used to explore barriers and facilitators to implementation of mindfulness-based stress reduction, including 33 people with multiple sclerosis, 6 multiple sclerosis clinicians and 2 course instructors. Normalization process theory provided the underpinning conceptual framework. Data were analyzed deductively using normalization process theory constructs (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring). Key barriers included mismatched stakeholder expectations, lack of knowledge about mindfulness-based stress reduction, high levels of comorbidity and disability and skepticism about embedding mindfulness-based stress reduction in routine multiple sclerosis care. Facilitators to implementation included introducing a pre-course orientation session; adaptations to mindfulness-based stress reduction to accommodate comorbidity and disability and participants suggested smaller, shorter classes, shortened practices, exclusion of mindful-walking and more time with peers. Post-mindfulness-based stress reduction booster sessions may be required, and objective and subjective reports of benefit would increase clinician confidence in mindfulness-based stress reduction. Multiple sclerosis patients and clinicians know little about mindfulness-based stress reduction. Mismatched expectations are a barrier to participation, as is rigid application of mindfulness-based stress reduction in the context of disability. Course adaptations in response to patient needs would facilitate uptake and utilization. Rendering access to mindfulness-based stress reduction rapid and flexible could facilitate implementation. Embedded outcome assessment is desirable.

Journal Article 26.6: Toye, C. R. A. (2016) ‘Normalisation process theory and the implementation of resident assessment instrument–home care in Saskatchewan, Canada: A qualitative study’, Home Health Care Management & Practice, 28(3): 161–9.

Description: Meeting the health needs of the community client in Saskatchewan, Canada, has been theoretically improved by the home care program’s adoption of an electronic client assessment system, Resident Assessment Instrument–Home Care (RAI-HC). Valid and reliable client outcome data are generated from a completed RAI-HC, and available to home care and its assessor coordinators to support clinical and program decisions. To realize the benefits of RAI-HC, user comprehension and application of this system in totality is central. This study fostered an understanding of the association of normalization process theory (NPT) with the implementation, utilization, and integration of RAI-HC within home care practice in Saskatchewan. The findings suggest encumbered utilization and integration of RAI-HC into day-to-day home care practice, and a parallel relationship with NPT.